history of hebrew vowels

Publikované: | Kategórie: Uncategorized | Autor: | Žiadne komentáre
 

1) Bodie Hodge, Tower of Babel: The Culture History of Our Ancestors, Master Books, (Green Forest, AR, 2013), p. 114 jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_1").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_1", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); This opinion is known as the “Tiberian Masorite Theory” (TMT) indicating the idea that Masoritic scribes in Tiberias invented the Hebrew vowel points generally somewhere between A.D. 500-1000. . [72]  Indeed, copying Horne, even the Catholic writer A. E. Breen in his 1897 A General and Critical Introduction to the Study of Holy Scripture stated that “By some… learned men… the origin of the Hebrew vowel points is maintained to be coeval with the Hebrew language itself:  while others assert them to have been first introduced by Ezra after the Babylonian captivity… some few writers of respectability continue strenuously to advocate their antiquity.”[73]  However, while apologetic for the inspiration of a pointed text did not cease in the Reformation era, but has continued even to the present day, in the eighteenth century the anti-vowelists seized the dominant position, which they have since maintained. 227, Burnett, Stephen G.. [22]              Turretin (himself a prominent apologist for the points) lists in their favor “many celebrated men, grammarians as well as theologians, Protestants and papists:  Junius, Illyricus, Reuchlin, Munster, Cevalerius, Pagninus, M. Marinus, Polanus, Diodati, Broughton, Muis, Taylor, Bootius, Lightfoot, the great majority of modern theologians, and the Buxtorfs” (pg. Start with Section 2.1 and move down through the list. Porter, J. Scott, Principles of Textual Criticism, London, England:  Simms and M‘Intyre, 1848. I believe this is the most likely scenario. The earliest method of indicating some vowels in Hebrew writing was to use the consonant letters yod י ‎, waw ו ‎, he ה ‎,and aleph א ‎ of the Hebrew alphabet to also write long vowels in some cases. . 308. . . Between the fifth and tenth centuries of the Common Era, Karaite Hebrew Scribes (called the Masorites) of the Ben Asher family developed a system of vowels to be added to the Biblical Hebrew texts. Moncrieff pleaded that teachers, regardless of their view of the points, at least teach their students what they were, had to defend the existence of the Hebrew dual, attack the anti-point reading paradigm then in vogue, which led to countless bizarre and false vocalizations, and argue that “Not only some of the best ancient translations, but our own excellent authorized version, and some other comparatively modern translations into other languages which are held in high esteem, have been executed according to the present written system of punctuation, because all these translators held this system to be of the greatest utility and essential to the integrity of the text, even though some of them held that it was only a traditional reading, however correct, before the time which was fixed upon for the invention and notation of these written signs, of which the system is made up… [t]he fullest, most critical, and every way the best Lexicons and Grammars of the Hebrew language, in more ancient or later times, have been executed on the principle of having a strict regard to the reading according to the Vowel-Points…”[80]  While Moncrieff does make positive arguments for the antiquity of the points from passages in Josephus, Philo, the LXX, and other ancient witnesses, the overriding purpose of his composition is less his readers’ adoption of the position of Buxtorf on the points than a desire that the simple fundamentals of Hebrew grammar and syntax be taught and prized against rampant alternative systems of vocalization that wreaked havoc upon the text. “Corrupt readings have occasionally resulted from the ancient practice of writing Scripture in the uncial character [all capital letters], without accents, without punctuation, and indeed without any division of the text or spacing between words.”8)Dean Burgon, Cause of Corruption of the New Testament Text, Sovereign Grace Publishers, Inc., 1998, p. 21 jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_8").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_8", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); Thomas Ross gives multitudes of other examples from the Talmudic texts about evidence for Hebrew vowel points.9)Thomas D. Ross, Evidences for the Inspiration of the Hebrew Vowel Points, p. 11-20; accessible at http://faithsaves.net/inspiration-hebrew-vowel-points/ jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_9").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_9", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); [Black are consonants, red are vowels, and blue are accent marks]. 10. Chapter 2: The Hebrew Vowels 9 2.2 Hebrew Vowel Charts. III. [40]              i. e., Francis Turretin argues, against those that would undermine the authority of the Hebrew received text on lower critical grounds, that “even if the points were lately added… it would not follow that the punctuation was a merely human invention, depending solely upon the human will… according to this latter hypothesis the points may not have been from the beginning as to form, still it cannot be denied that they were always as to sound and value or power,” (pg. Here again the Targumic wording supports a vocalized text being engraved on the tablets. Elwell, Walter A., ed., Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, Grand Rapids, MI:  Baker Books, 1984. By inserting other vowel sounds, this could be translated “lamp.”16)Spiros Zodhiates, Hebrew-Greek Key Word Study Bible, AMG Publishers, 1991, p. 820 jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_16").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_16", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); Dr. Thomas M. Strouse wrote, “A Review of and Observations about Peter Whitfield’s A Dissertation on the Hebrew Vowel-Points” which was published in 1748; summed up some of the major arguments of Peter Whitfield’s Dissertation. It appears, however, that at the time of the publication of Brian Walton’s[57] Polyglot in 1657 (as earlier; so it is likely that a belief in the inspiration of the Hebrew vowels was maintained either universally or at least by the main body of the translators of the King James Version of 1611) the general Protestant consensus in England favored the points’ inspiration and originality. 1858. For example, John Morinus (1591-1659), Catholic convert from Protestantism, represents typical counter-reformation apologetic: The reason why God ordained the Scriptures to be written in this ambiguous manner [without points] is because it was His will that every man should be subject to the Judgment of the Church, and not interpret the Bible in his own way. This relatively novel theory was not persuasive during the Reformation era and was not affecting the translators of the King James Bible. Liverpool, 1748. 44-47, Preface to, [14]              Bert Loonostra, in “Scholasticism and Hermeneutics,” (pgs. Aland, Kurt, “The Text of the Church?” Trinity Journal, 8:2 (Fall 1987) 131-144. Durell, Judd, Lowth, Blayney, Newcome, Wintle, Horsley, Good, and Boothroyd. Cambridge, England: Parker society, 1843 (orig. The ancient Hebrew language (including Paleo Hebrew and Aramaic) did not have a written system of vowels. Hebrew Vorlage . . Farnell, F. David, “The Gift of Prophecy in the Old and New Testaments,” Bibliotheca Sacra  149:596 (Oct 92). by E. Kautzsch. . Within these vowel classes, there are five vowel types (a, e, i, o, u), though not all are attested in each of the vowel classes. IV, p. 140 jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_12").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_12", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); and “a little horn; extremity; apex; point; used by the Grk. i. cap ii., cited in John Owen. One notes that the only other reference to writing plainly in Scripture is Habakkuk 2:2:  “And the LORD answered me, and said, Write the vision, and make it plain upon tables, that he may run that readeth it”  (:wáøb aérwõøq X…wërÎy NAo¶AmVl twóøjU;lAh_lAo r™EaDb…w NwYøzDj bwâøtV;k rRmaYø¥yÅw ‹hÎOwh◊y yˆn§EnSoÅ¥yÅw). . Arias Montanus” (pg. Gould, William H, & Quick, Charles W., Philadelphia, PA:  Leighton Publications, 1865. And if you can believe the Bible was pointed in such a school, believe also all that the Talmudists wrote. ed. But vowel points were added to help alleviate any misconception. 2:  Holy Scripture:  The Cognitive Foundation of Theology, Grand Rapids, MI:  Baker Books, 1993. Recollect, I beseech you, the names of the Rabbins of Tiberias, from the first situation of the University there to the time that it expired;  and what at length do you find, but a kind of men mad with Pharisaism, bewitching with traditions and bewitched, blind, guileful, doting, they must pardon me if I say, magical and monstrous! McClure, Alexander, The Translators Revived, Litchfield, MI:  Maranatha Bible Society, n.d., orig. Burnett, Stephen G., From Christian Hebraism to Jewish Studies:  Johannes Buxtorf (1564-1629) and Hebrew Learning in the Seventeenth Century, Leiden, the Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1996. For the sake of an infallible, available Bible which could provide a sound basis for opposition to an infallible church, English Protestants early rose to the defense of the originality of the Hebrew points. Accordance Bible software, including Bible texts and numerous tools, including the Theological Journal Library, Version 5, published by Galaxie Software;  cf. Can we say “Thus saith the LORD” without adding “unless there is a variant”? Jacob Perez de Valencia (c. 1420-1491), an Augustinian hermit, asserted that “no faith is to be placed in the Holy Scriptures, as the Jews now interpret and punctuate them.”[13]  The body of the first generation of Reformers,[14] including Luther,[15] Calvin,[16] and Zwingle, taking up the Catholic viewpoint, now backed with the apparently substantial[17] arguments of Levita, and not necessarily thinking through all the consequences, were happy to, in the name of sola Scriptura, shed what they perceived to be mere Rabbinic tradition along with the inventions of Catholicism;  moreover, a desire to stay on the good side of the State and so retain life and freedom, and contentions with Catholics about pressing matters from the sacraments to the Pope to purgatory would naturally seem a higher priority than the examination of Rabbinic literature to dispute the origin of Hebrew vowels. Obviously they appear to be very similar. . The Development of the Biblical Hebrew Vowels investigates the sound changes affecting the Proto-Northwest-Semitic vocalic phonemes and their reflexes in Tiberian Biblical Hebrew. . 49, Ginsburg, [16]          While Calvin did not take a stand in favor of the inspiration of the vowels, he did follow the general consensus of his era and accept as correct the pronunciation. Jan 14, 2018 - Explore k mangan's board "Hebrew vowels" on Pinterest. Gill, John, A Dissertation concerning the Antiquity of the Hebrew Language, Letters, Vowel Points, and Accents, originally published in 1767, available at http://www.onlinebible.net/topics6.html. [A]ll the accents and Hebrew points . CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. Ancient Hebrew Text To Greek To Latin . . On the Continent, for example, by 1609, Amandus Polanus (1561-1610), professor of theology and Old Testament exegesis at the University of Basel,[19] argued for the inspiration of the points on the basis that Scripture teaches the inspiration of words, and not consonants alone, or merely thoughts, and that the faith was based on the words of the prophets, not of the Masorites. Spiros Zodhiates writes: Since the vowel sounds were not written in the original Hebrew manuscripts, there are two possible translations for the Hebrew word which is rendered “plowing” in this verse [Proverb 21:4]. Fulke even cites “an excellent learned papist . [22]   Lutherans such as Flaccius, Gerhard, who brought “the view into general acceptance among Luthern theologians,”[23] and Dannhauer[24]  defended the points, and their originality and inspiration became a fundamental theological tenet of Reformed high orthodoxy. Fulke, William, A Defense of the Sincere and True Translation of the Holy Scriptures into the English Tongue, against the Manifold Cavils, Frivolous Quarrels, and Impudent Slanders of Gregory Martin, one of the Readers of Popish Divinity, in the Traitorous Seminary of Rheims. Owen, John, Of the Integrity and Purity of the Hebrew and Greek Text of the Scripture;  with Considerations on the Prolegomena and Appendix to the Late “Biblia Polyglotta,” in vol. [1]                 Note that the Hebrew Textus Receptus, the 2nd edition of the Bomberg Masoretic Text as edited by Ben Chayyim, fully pointed the Tetragrammaton, and so printed hÎOwh◊y as in the text above; the modern critical texts print hÎwh◊y, omitting the cholem, and so differ in the pointing of the Divine Name in thousands of places—defenders of the points would therefore generally lament the modern United Bible Societies Hebrew text printed above as woefully corrupt, and not that “Hebrew original of the OT which we have received and to this day do retain as . Table 15 - Proto-Semitic to Tiberian Hebrew - Vowel Phonemes with Possible Allophones. Box 16 - Semitic Vowels and their Actualization. Would it have been equally an Execution of the Divine Command, whether Saul had only killed the Males [rDkÎz] of Amalek, or blotted out the Memory [rRkEz] of the whole Nation?” (pg. [6]  However, in 1538 Elias Levita, a famous Jewish grammarian and scholar, published his Massoreth Ha-Massoreth,[7] which asserted that the vowels had been added by the Masorites c. A. D. 500,[8]  although they represented the true vocalization and interpretation of the text as originally given by inspiration. Christ . The denial of the Vowel points began creeping into Christendom as the Catholic church first promoted the opinion of the Tiberian Masorite Theory yoked with Catholic tradition and magistrates alone able to interpret Scripture due to ambiguity without the vowels. Pick. VII, p. 580, Thomas Ross, The Battle Over the Hebrew Vowel points, Examined Particularly As Waged in England,” p. 8; accessible at, James Barr, Fundamentalism, SCM Press Ltd, (London, 1977) p. 298, http://www.newadvent.org/fa thers/101506.htm, http://faithsaves.net/inspiration-hebrew-vowel-points/, http://www.come-and-hear.com/nedarim/nedarim_37.html, http://www.deanburgonsociety.org/CriticalTexts/witfields.htm, http://truthwatchers.com/deistic-inspiration-preserved-inerrancy/, http://evans.landmarkbiblebaptist.net/04-BibleCorrectionExamples/Battle%20Over%20the%20Hebrew%20Vowel%20Points,%20Ros.pdf, Dr. Lee Berger: The Suspicious Character Behind Homo Naledi, Counsel of the Ungodly: Commentary on Psalm 1:1, Why Contemporary Christian Music is NOT Christian, The necessity of vowel-points in reading the Hebrew language, The necessity for forming different Hebrew conjugations, moods, tenses, as well as dual and plural endings on nouns, The necessity of vowel-points in distinguishing a great number of words with different significations which without vowel-points are the same. [W]e acknowledge the text of the Old Testament in Hebrew and Chaldee [Aramaic] . The controversy continued through the century; orthodoxy finally yielded the points, and a modest step was taken toward appreciating the bible as the majestic expression of a people.24)Will and Ariel Durant, The Story of Civilization: The Age of Reason Begins, Simon and Schuster (New York, NY: 1961), Vol. Shabir Ally Debates Thomas Ross: The New Testament Picture of Jesus: Is It Accurate? The latter view was generally held by the Catholics and used to support an infallible church and the superiority of the Vulgate in controversy with English Protestants, as with their Continental counterparts; if “the Hebrew tongue [is] a very nose of wax, to be turned by men which way they please, and to be so given of God on purpose that men might subject their consciences to [the] infallible [Roman Catholic] church,”[49] then Sola Scriptura must necessarily be abandoned. The verse reads, “And thou shalt write upon the stones all the words of this law very plainly.” (:b`EfyEh r¶EaA;b taäøΩzAh hñ∂rwø;tAh yöérVbî;d_lD;k_t`Ra MyGˆnDbSaDh_lAo ∞D;tVbAtDk◊w). . William Fulke[50]  maintained their inspiration in 1583 when he published his A Defense of the Sincere and True Translation of the Holy Scriptures into the English Tongue, against the Manifold Cavils, Frivolous Quarrels, and Impudent Slanders of Gregory Martin,[51] one of the Readers of Popish Divinity, in the Traitorous Seminary of Rheims. [52]              pgs. Originally the Hebrew language was not written with vowels to indicate how a word should be pronounced. It is significant that “it is likely that a belief in the inspiration of the Hebrew vowels was maintained either universally or at least by the main body of the translators of the King James Version of 1611…”19)Thomas Ross, The Battle Over the Hebrew Vowel points, Examined Particularly As Waged in England,” p. 15; accessible at http://evans.landmarkbiblebaptist.net/04-BibleCorrectionExamples/Battle%20Over%20the%20Hebrew%20Vowel%20Points,%20Ros.pdf jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_19").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_19", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); Thomas Ross records, “Medieval Judaism accepted the inspiration of the Hebrew [vowel] points and generally dated them to Moses, although Ezra was often held to have exercised a prophetic role in the standardization of the text; the available copies were considered perfectly preserved from the time of their original inspiration, and not only consonants and vowels, but Masorah and tradition handed down unchanged from God to the patriarchs to the present day. He stated: I confess, considering the days we live in, wherein the bold and curious wits of men, under pretence of critical observations, alluring and enticing with a show of learning, have ventured to question almost every word in the Scripture, I cannot but tremble to think what would be the issue of this supposition, that the points or vowels, and accents, are no better guides unto us than may be expected from those who are pretended to be their authors. Each letter represents a number. Dean Burgeon stressed that the corruptions of manuscripts were caused by some scribes that copied the sacred Scriptures in such a style as commonly claimed. Whereas a jot is a whole letter, a tittle is only a part of a letter… For example, the Hebrew letter beth looks like ב. Contraveners shall… be punished with the penalties by law established.” (pg. This was handed down through traditions and recorded in the Talmud before the Masorites performed their duty of producing the fixed traditional reading by adding vowels and accent marks. [52]  These early Englishmen affirmed, as did a continuing Protestant tradition, that the keraia or “tittle” of Matthew 5:18 referred to the points of the Hebrew text, so they existed in Christ’s day and received His Divine sanction. Hugh Broughton, in his commentary on Daniel, published in 1596, upheld the same view, as did John Piscator in his 1594 Analysis Logica Evangelii secundum Matthaeum. of the Targums . will never suffer to perish. . ), Hendrickson Publishers (Peabody, Massachusetts: 1896, Fifth Printing, 2012) Vol. Thomas Ross records, “Medieval Judaism accepted the inspiration of the Hebrew [vowel] points and generally dated them to Moses, although Ezra was often held to have exercised a prophetic role in the standardization of the text; the available copies were considered perfectly preserved from the time of their original inspiration, and not only consonants and vowels, but Masorah and tradition … Vine, Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words, Revell, 1966, Vol. If this sounds like Greek to you, you're not far off! Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1994). [50]              “[I]t is without perhaps, or peradventure, that not one iota or prick of the law of God can perish, by the testimony of our Saviour Christ, Matthew v.  . How could the Talmud, written before the accent marks were supposedly invented, tell us that Nehemiah expounded the Scripture and explained the accent marks in them more than 1,000 years before they were invented? [48]  The positions of Buxtorf, Levita, and Cappel all found supporters in England, as on the Continent. ed. In Byzantine and medieval times, scribes added vowels and signs of punctuation, musical notations, and marginal variants.”2)Samuel Terrien, The Psalms: Strophic Structure and Theological Commentary, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company (Grand Rapids, MI: 2003), p. 25 jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_2").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_2", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); However, it can be proven that men were familiar with the Hebrew vowels at earlier dates than A.D. 500-1000. However, in 1538, Elias Levita, a famous Jewish grammarian and scholar, published his Massoreth Ha-Massoreth, which asserted that the vowels had been added by the Masorites c. A.D. 500,…”20) Thomas Ross, The Battle Over the Hebrew Vowel points, Examined Particularly As Waged in England,” p. 3-4; accessible at http://evans.landmarkbiblebaptist.net/04-BibleCorrectionExamples/Battle%20Over%20the%20Hebrew%20Vowel%20Points,%20Ros.pdf jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_20").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_20", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); If the Hebrew vowels and accents were invented sometime between A.D. 500-1000, we would wonder how all the Jews being scattered across the world in A.D. 135 are universally able to accurately understand the meanings and  pronunciations if the language was “essentially vowelless… vocalically ambiguous… [and] pronunciation of the language was handed down orally, and as the Jew left or were expelled from Palestine and formed new communities in Babylonia, Egypt, and eventually throughout most of the civilized world, the traditional reading of biblical texts diverged gradually from whatever norm might have existed prior to these dispersions.”21)Thomas O. Lambdin, Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Darton, Longman and Todd Ltd. (London: 1973), p. XIV jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_21").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_21", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); Even harder to account for are the complex grammatical rules involving vowel reductions being acknowledge by Jewish communities separated from one another around the world. The same can and ought to be said of all the codices of the ancient interpreters.”[46]  The great variations in the Septuagint from the standard Hebrew text, such as the fact that the Hebrew of Jeremiah 25-45 roughly corresponds to chapters 32-51 in the Greek,[47]  and the poor quality of much of its translation, illustrates how greatly Cappel’s lower critical views undermined the current Protestant bibliology. Muller, Richard A., Post-Reformation Reformed Dogmatics, vol. The Babylonian Talmud, tractate Bavil Nedarim states: Now, he who maintains that remuneration is for the teaching of accentuation,… why does he reject the view that it is for teaching accents? His most prized follower and student, Jacob Vernet, who was to perform the oration at Turrettini’s death in 1737 and who would translate and edit most of his works, used his rationalistic methodology to reject the last vestiges of orthodoxy, the mysteries of the Incarnation and the Trinity that Turrettini had deemed beyond the scope of reason. [60]  Consequently, while Walton’s work appeared during the height of the classic formulation of the debate about the points, and some within the sphere of Protestantism continued to avow anti-point positions, the younger Buxtorf’s reply to the Arcanum had apparently stemmed the strong philological assault which it had made against his father’s Tiberias. He defined the term Reformed scholasticism primarily in the context of the system of theology epitomized in the Formula. & ed., Introduction to the Tiberian Masorah, Israel Yeivin, Chico, CA:  Scholar’s Press, 1980. Yoma 21b; Bab. Karaite transcriptions of Biblical Hebrew in Arabic script (cross reference) dating back to the 9th to 14th centuries C.E., disclose numerous different reading traditions through the use of vowel pointing and other signs. The thought that the Hebrew vowels were in the original autographs of the Bible, handwritten by the prophets who originally received God’s words, most likely sound ridiculous to the average Christian today because the scholars have consistently taught us the Hebrew vowels did not exist until a later date. Perhaps the alphabet that the Hebrew language uses today, which is in fact Aramaic, should really be called Jewish. 2, The Fundamentals, eds. David Scott, Chicago, IL:  The Bible Institute Colportage Association, n. d. Gesenius, Wilhelm, Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar, ed. More Resources on Bibliology, the Doctrine of Scripture. [27]              This is evident in the fact that Bible translations were made from the TR, in the quotation of distinctively Received Text readings in Protestant confessions of faith (i. e, 1 Jn 5:7 in chap. 55-56, 578, 78). Ironside, H. A., Notes on the Book of Proverbs. 60. 1-3, 4th ed., New York, NY:  Harper and Brothers, 1919. Hills, Edward F., The King James Version Defended, Des Moines, Iowa:  Christian Research Press, 1956. It is also worthy of note that “the . Whitfiield, Peter, A Dissertation on the Hebrew Vowel-Points, showing that they are an original and essential part of the Language. Secondly, when the doctrine was so tightly connected with the exact verbal form of the biblical text, it would have been very peculiar if they had not regarded as inspired the vocalization, which is so essential for the determination of meaning.”26)James Barr, Fundamentalism, SCM Press Ltd, (London, 1977) p. 298 jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_26").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_26", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); The thought of the inspiration of Hebrew vowel points is mocked by secular men and Liberals theologians and all but ignored by contemporary evangelicals because of their compromised views on inspiration, but sound evidence and logic would persuade us that God gave us His words in an unambiguous clear communication to be understood (Deuteronomy 27:8) because God desires for all nations and languages to hear His glorious gospel (Revelation 14:6) and have His word translated for them to obey all things He has commanded (Matthew 28:20). In addition to the Old Testament, a small number of inscriptions in Hebrew of the biblical period are extant; the earliest of these is a short inscription in Phoenician characters dating from the 9th century bc. 55) who also believed in the inspiration of the vowels and accents. The second son of Juda [Genesis 38:4], again, has with us the name Annan, but with the Hebrew Onan,…”3)Origen, Origen’s Commentary on John, book 6, chap.24; The Ante-Nicene Father, (ed. . Schaff, Philip, The Creeds of Christiandom, vol. . The growth of anti-vocalizing criticism in England as a result of the Reformation debate led to severe negative consequences. The pointing of the Bible savours of the work of the Holy Spirit, not the work of lost, blinded, besotted men.[62]. [Since] our Saviour Christ hath promised that never a prick of the law shall perish, we may understand the same also of the prophets, who have not received the vowels of the latter Jews, but even of the prophets themselves. ), Hendrickson Publishers (Peabody, Massachusetts: 1896, Fifth Printing, 2012) Vol. Tov, Emanuel, Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible, 2nd ed. Quenstedt, J. Breen, A. E., A General and Critical Introduction to the Study of Holy Scripture, Rochester, NY:  The John P. Smith Printing House, 1897. McKane, William, Selected Christian Hebraists, New York, NY:  Cambridge University Press, 1989. Why would not the way of making the Law “very plain” so that “he may run that readeth it” be by writing a pointed copy? Prues, Robert D. The Theology of Post-Reformation Lutheranism, vol. How does the pointing, or lack thereof, of the text influence the doctrine of inspiration? Parker society ed. The Lord, I hope, will safeguard his own from the poison of such attempts. [49]              Morinus, Exercit. His commentaries also reveal the existence of Hebrew vowel points. Hebrew Letters / Final Consonants & Vowels The following letter chart is very useful to quickly see the letters, their shapes, their names, and the numerical values (Gematria). 44, “Life of Elias Levita,” Ginsburg. As with other Semitic languages, only the consonants were written down (no vowels). [26]              pg. [4]                There seem to be very few possible exceptions to this view in medieval Judaism;  the only two possible prominent candidates would be the ninth century Natronai ha-Sheni ben Hilai and the twelfth century Ibn Ezra (pg. II and Mark 16:15-16 and Ac 8:37-38 in chapter XXVIII of the Westminster Confession of Faith (pg. However, the church at Rome, displeased with the Reformers’ cry that the Bible, unfettered by tradition, was the complete and authoritative Word of God, took Levita’s assertion of the recent origin of the points and wielded it against the Protestants, affirming that it demonstrated that the Bible could not be understood apart from the Catholic church. Advocates included Archbishop Secker and Drs. “With very few exceptions a syllable must begin with a single consonant followed at least by one vowel.”22)Thomas O. Lambdin, Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Darton, Longman and Todd Ltd. (London: 1973), p. XVIII jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_22").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_22", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); Such tampering would literally double the Hebrew Scripture as a vowel is placed under every consonant and an accent exists on every word. Consider how one can handle their exposition of the Old Testament if they deny the fixed and preserved inspiration of the Hebrew Vowel points. A. E. Cowley. The Jewish proselyte to Catholicism Nicholas de Lyra (c. 1270-1340) also asserted the late addition of the points. ed, New York, NY:  Philips & Hunt, 1880. pub. In the New Testament, whenever an Old Testament passage was quoted that contained YHWH, the writers used kurios in the Greek. It is interesting that conservative evangelical scholars today seem utterly ignorant of this issue while liberals recognize it. (cf. The elder Turrettini, as professor of theology at the Genevan Academy, was the leader of the more conservative theological movement that principally desired to defend the orthodoxy of the Synod of Dort against the Remonstrants and the theology of the Academy of Saumur in France [where Louis Cappel (1585–1658), the prominent exponent of the Masoretic origin of the points, whom Buxtorf Jr. wrote against, taught]. When the Lord Jesus Christ stated “For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled” (Matthew 5:18), it is normally interpreted by those denying the vowel points as expressed by Charles Ryrie: The jot is the Hebrew letter yodh [י]. IX, The Works of John Owen, ed. [58]  Buxtorf Sr. had written his Tiberias, defending the originality and inspiration of the points, in 1620, to which Cappel had replied with his 1623 Arcanum punctationis revelatum;  Buxtorf Jr. published a series of dissertations on the antiquity on the Hebrew language and its antiquity in 1645, and a specific rebuttal of the Acranum punctationis in 1648. Although Owen’s fear of the consequences of the adoption of a non-authoritative view of the points is manifest in his Integrity and Purity of the Hebrew and Greek Text of the Scripture, with considerations on the prologomena and appendix to the late “Biblia Polyglotta,” he presented a scholarly and gentlemanly rebuttal to Walton, and asserted the fixation of the points by “the men of the great synagogue, Ezra and his companions, guided therein by the infallible direction of the Spirit of God… [although he did] not oppose them who maintain that they are coevous with the letters— which are not a few of the most learned Jews and Christians.”[64]  Walton published a rather vitriolic and abusive reply, The Considerator Considered, in 1659. Perhaps this might be sometimes allowed in humane Compositions;  but the Case is different with regard to Divine Writings. d.1 Diachronic Development of the Biblical Hebrew Vowel System. Would the people be able to “write upon [the stones] all the words of [the] law” (Deuteronomy 27:3) so that they could “keep all the commandments” (27:1) in them with an unpointed copy? (Also see Bab. in thattranslation the word YHWH was translated to the Greek word kurios(“Lord”). Sometime beginning around 600 A.D., a group of scribes in Tiberias called the Masoretes (mesora means "tradition") began developing a system of vowel marks (called neqqudot) to indicate how the text was traditionally read. [35]  These theological presuppositions of the verbal inspiration and preservation of the textus receptus were brought to bear in the standard-bearing treatises for the originality and inspiration of the points by Buxtorf Sr. and Jr.,[36]  alongside of philological and grammatical exercitation.[37]. » This phase was before King David, ca. A. Quenstedt from Theologia Didactio-Polemica Sive Systema Theologicum, abr., ed., trans. (Whitfield. Unger, Merrill F., “The Text of the Old Testament,” Bibliotheca Sacra, 108:429 (Jan 51), 15-43. In the following charts, the Hebrew vowels are presented in four major vowel classes: short, changeable long, unchangeable long and reduced. Yoma 9b; Bab. Gaussen, B. L., Theopneustia:  The Plenary Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures, rev. Contrary to the Buxtorf position, Walton maintained that the Hebrew points were added to the text between A. D. 500 and 600 and are consequently not of absolute divine authority, than an examination of Hebrew variants outside of the textus receptus, as well as of early translations, was appropriate to determine the true reading and at times correct the Received Text, and conjectural emendation could be adopted in especially difficult circumstances. Evidence the Hebrew Vowel Points were Inspired, Bodie Hodge, Tower of Babel: The Culture History of Our Ancestors, Master Books, (Green Forest, AR, 2013), p. 114, Samuel Terrien, The Psalms: Strophic Structure and Theological Commentary, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company (Grand Rapids, MI: 2003), p. 25, Origen, Origen’s Commentary on John, book 6, chap.24; The Ante-Nicene Father, (ed. [2]                The Westminster Confession of Faith of 1647, 1:8, pg. The letter kaph looks like this כ. The first, and less radical, considered that “the Masoretic punctuation is an interpretation of the text made by the Jews, probably not earlier than the eighth century, and that, accordingly, our public translations… close copies of the Hebrew pointed text, are in reality only versions at second hand, translations of the Jews’ interpretation of the Old Testament”[75]  and the Hebrew text itself “is considerably injured, and stands in need of frequent emendation.”  It put great weight upon early versions and made conjectures based on flights of fancy that greatly undermined the authority of Scripture. [69]  C. D. Ginsburg, translating and commenting on Levita’s Massoreth Ha-Massoreth in 1867, stated that the controversy started by Levita “cannot be said to have as yet fully subsided.”[70]   Thomas H. Horne of St. John’s College, Cambridge, in his 1868 An Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, discussed the vowel controversy and affirmed that the Masoretic origin of the points “is now generally received, although some few writers of respectability continue strenuously to advocate their antiquity.”[71]  Horne still maintained that Hebrew was the original language. lib. [25]  Furthermore, in contrast with some willingness among the partisans of Rome to engage in lower criticism, usually with the intention of undermining the authority of the extant original language copies, Protestants generally believed “the original texts of the Old and New Testaments [had] come down to us pure and uncorrupted”[26] and consequently affirmed the preservation of both the New Testament Textus Receptus[27] and the 1524-1525 Hebrew Old Testament, the 2nd Rabbinic Bible edited by Jacob ben Chayyim, “accepted as the authoritative text (textus receptus) for four hundred years or more… [and which] fixed the vowel-letters, the vowel points, and the accents as well.”[28]  Ben Chayyim’s introduction to the Masoretic Textus Receptus[29] assumed the vowel points were given by inspiration to Moses at Sinai[30] and his Massorah finalis included a Jewish treatise by Moses the Punctuator that took the same view, and “has since been reprinted in all the editions of the Rabbinic Bibles.”[31]  This could not have been other than a point in favor of the Hebrew vowels among the Protestants. Bruce, F. F., “Transmission and Translation of the Bible,” in the Expositor’s Bible Commentary, vol. He said, “we have been at pains to learn from the Hebrews, comparing our own copies with theirs which have the confirmation of the versions, never subjected to corruption… to encourage students to pay more attention to such points…. [43]  In contrast, Cappel argued that with the addition of the points, and the alteration of the original form of the Hebrew script,[44] many matres lectiones were eliminated, and the Hebrew textus receptus often required emendation. [45]   The points, a human invention, could be altered when necessary, along with the consonants when they presented difficulties— ancient interpreters or translations could correct the standard Hebrew text when they seem to be better— even conjectural emendation, without any physical evidence, was at times possible. However, by affirming the basic integrity of the Hebrew copies,[61]  their perspicuity through the matres lectionis, and their fundamentally greater authority than that of translations, especially the Vulgate (and so maintaining his opposition to the Catholic formulation of Trent), he sought to avoid the theological and hermeneutical quagmire, which seemed to lead either to rationalism or Rome, of the wholesale acceptance of Cappel’s position, and so adopted a position on the points similar to Levita. Jobes, Karen H. & Silva, Moisés, Invitation to the Septuagint, Grand Rapids, MI:  Baker Books, 2000. [78]              As, i. e., Horne suggests, pg. Owen likewise considered that any compromise of the divine origin and inspiration of the vowels would lead to disaster. 1,400 B.C. One referred to a region and one to a people group. Indeed, many among the Catholics had, to better oppose the Jews, held to the late origin of the points for some time in the medieval era. IX, The Works of John Owen, ed. . ix, xi-xii, “Prolegomenon” to Ben Chayyim’s, [32]              “The influence of Protestant scholasticism was both immediate and long-range… The dominant Reformed scholastics… were Beza, Vermigli, Adrianus Heerebout, and, most importantly, Francis Turretin (1623-87). Samuel Terrien expresses the same thing only adding the three consonants were used as vowels in the early period. Thus, all spoken languages have vowels. While the current customary evangelical position on the points is less destructively radical than the extremes that appeared in England after the common adoption of Cappel’s textual critical philosophy, seventeenth century theological orthodoxy, with its general acceptance of a dictation view of inspiration and its confidence in the verbal, plenary preservation and authority of the available Biblical textus receptus, both in Hebrew and Greek, which provided a strong theological support for the doctrine of the originality and authority of the Hebrew vowels, is generally abandoned—so the problem of the multivocality of the text for the evangelical supporter of Sola Scriptura remains. In course of time it was connected with masar (to hand down), and thus came to mean traditional reading.”7)footnote #8 of The Babylonian Talmud, tractate Bavil Nedarim, 37b; accessible at http://www.come-and-hear.com/nedarim/nedarim_37.html jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_7").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_7", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); The editor then follows the statement by expressing the average view of the Tiberian Masorite Theory that the original Hebrew was without brakes in the letters consisting of only consonants, but in saying such he contradicts the entire passage. . When God revealed Himself so to Jeremiah, did the prophet write down the pointed Hebrew text above,[1] with the addition of accent marks, or only the unpointed consonants—or perhaps even only those consonants without the so-called vowel letters? A consideration of the origin, inspiration, and authority of the Hebrew vowel points has tremendous bibliological and hermeneutical significance;  controversy surrounding them generated great heat in the Reformation and post-Reformation eras and is, indeed, still with Christiandom today, when atheistic presuppositions plague much of the study of the historiography and philology of Hebrew and dominate both higher and lower biblical criticism. . If all he saw was as ו, he would not be able to argue for the name to be rendered with an “O” over “Αυ”. “The idea of the recent addition of the points was popular among the Catholics, for it lend support to their idea of the superiority of the Latin Vulgate to the Hebrew (and Greek) original, formally canonized in the Council of Trent, and became a tool in anti-Protestant polemic, for the perspicuity of Scripture and support the Romanist contention for the necessity of infallible interpretation by their organization.”23)Thomas Ross, The Battle Over the Hebrew Vowel points, Examined Particularly As Waged in England,” p. 5; accessible at http://evans.landmarkbiblebaptist.net/04-BibleCorrectionExamples/Battle%20Over%20the%20Hebrew%20Vowel%20Points,%20Ros.pdf jQuery("#footnote_plugin_tooltip_659_23").tooltip({ tip: "#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_659_23", tipClass: "footnote_tooltip", effect: "fade", predelay: 800, fadeInSpeed: 200, fadeOutSpeed: 2000, position: "top center", relative: true, offset: [2, 2] }); Protestants first resisted such ideas but slowly gave up the inspired vowels. & enlarg. . . [9]  Among the Jews, Levita’s “denying the divine origin and antiquity of the vowel-points was regarded not only as heterodoxy, but as a most unpardonable sin.”[10]  The idea of the recent addition of the points was popular among the Catholics, for it lent support to their idea of the superiority of the Latin Vulgate to the Hebrew (and Greek) original, formally canonized in the Council of Trent,[11] and became a tool in anti-Protestant polemic, for the ambiguity which resulted from the removal of the points mitigated the Reformers’ doctrine of the  perspicuity of Scripture and supported the Romanist contention for the necessity of infallible interpretation by their organization.[12]. [15]              i. e., “At the time of St. Jerome, the points did not as yet exist, and the whole Bible was read without them. Tip: Don’t worry about it, it’s more important to read the signs correctly than to write them Like most early Semitic alphabetic writing systems, the alef-bet has no vowels. Owen, John, Of the Divine Original, Authority, Self-Evidencing Light, and Power of the Scriptures;  with an Answer to that Inquiry, How We Know The Scriptures to be The Word of God, in vol. Additional symbols (placed below or on top of letters) make vowels, known as nekkudot (dots).These nekkudot make a string of letters into pronounceable and meaningful words. Compare also the very early MS AA discovered in the Cairo Geniza: :NCl NyobwCb Mgrtmw NCl djb yrqtm tway Crpmw qyqj btk adh htyrwa ylm lk ty hynba lo Nwbtktw. [61]               “By the use, and according to tradition, by the aid of the three letters ’vy [awy], called, [65]              His dissertation is entitled. The denial of the Hebrew vowels can neither be established by objective historical documentations, nor has it been the historical view of Jews or Christians of antiquity. George M. Giger, ed. (BDAG), Chicago, IL:  University of Chicago Press, 2000. Kaf, Mem, … Hebrew diphthongs are combination of vowels acting as a unit and producing a unique sound: Other Learning Resources pgs. . He needed to defend the Hebrew Bible’s mere coherence against those who were concluding otherwise from their opinions of the lack of authority of the points, and would doubtless have rejoiced to see Hebrew teachers return merely to the position of Levita from the wanderings Owen had warned them against and Cappellus had led them to. 1583). Contrary to many previous approaches, Benjamin Suchard shows that t See More The textual tradition of Hebrew Bible, an official registration of its words, consonants, vowels and accents. The Hebrew Vowel system. Branch, 1600 Leonard St., N. W., Grand Rapids, MI 49504) as they have been since its formation in 1831. The \"Kh\" and the \"Ch\" are pronounced as in German or Scottish, a throat clearing noise, not as the \"ch\" in \"chair.\" Note that there are two versions of some letters. Indeed, “[t]he authority of the Septuagint is above that of the present standard, not only in those places where its reading gives a better sense, but also where it gives one as good and appropriate, and that because it is the more ancient. was very nearly the same as that of our ‘received text’ (i. e., the second Bomberg edition)” (pg. 80-97, vol. All spoken languages are composed of sounds generated in part by breathing, and linguists designate unrestricted air flowing over the vocal tract resulting in audible sounds as vowels. 46, Porter, J. Scott. John Moncrieff, professor of Oriental Languages at the Andersonian University, who argued in his 1833 Essay on the Antiquity and Utility of the Hebrew Vowel Points that the sounds of the points, marked in the text in some manner, were authoritative and pre-Christian, even if the current signs were invented by the Masorites, lamented: Without anticipating any evidence which may be advanced, or any judgment to which we may be led on the question, as to the authenticity of the Vowel-Points, I hesitate not to affirm, that the great indifference which has, for a considerable time, prevailed, to acquire any critical knowledge of the Hebrew language, has been, not only because many public Teachers have been averse to teach it in any other way than according to the letters, but have boldly proscribed the method of reading with the Vowel-Points, in the language of bitter ridicule, and magisterial condemnation… The practice of exclusively teaching the language by means of the letters alone, in so many of our Seminaries, when viewed in connexion with the acrimonious and condemnatory language, employed against the other method of reading, has not only produced in students an aversion to be qualified to judge with discrimination on the vital question, as to the antiquity of the Vowel-Points, and other questions connected with the Language;  but there is reason to believe that this resolutely exclusive course of procedure, has had the unhappy influence, though no doubt far from what was intended, to produce a great indifference, with many who are professionally occupied with Theology, to acquire any knowledge of this original language, even in its very first principles.[79]. 115. 156, “The Vowel-Points Controversy in the XVI and XVII Centuries,” B. General Background to the Controversy, Including Affairs on the Continent, Medieval Judaism accepted the inspiration of the Hebrew points[4]  and generally dated them to Moses, although Ezra was often held to have exercised a prophetic role in the standardization of the text;[5] the available copies were considered perfectly preserved from the time of their original inspiration, and not only consonants and vowels, but Masorah and tradition, handed down unchanged from God to the patriarchs to the present day. So they developed a vowel point system to know how to pronounce it. Klauber, Martin I., “Jean-Alphonse Turrettini and the Abrogation of the Formula Consensus in Geneva,” Westminster Theological Journal, 53:2 (Fall 1991), 325-338. Certainly the answer to a question of this kind has large theological and hermeneutical significance. Today vowels are commonly used in Hebrew school and grammar books, but newspapers, magazines, … While some maintained it alongside of fundamental Christian orthodoxy in other areas, Cappel’s criticism tended to gut Biblical authority, and utterly rejected the general orthodox consensus of the time that the available Hebrew and Greek apographa, not the autographs alone, were inerrant. Owen, John, Biblical Theology:  The History of Theology from Adam to Christ, Morgan, PA:  Soli Deo Gloria, 1994 trans. Several such diacritical systems were developed in the Early Middle Ages. This could not be argued if there were no Hebrew vowel points existing in the manuscripts he had seen. Pelikan, Jaroslav, Reformation of Church and Dogma, Chicago, IL:  University of Chicago Press, 1985. Liberal author James Barr wrote about the inconsistency of contemporary conservative evangelicals views of inerrancy, saying, “The older protestant scholastics, on the other hand, had a certain amount of reason on their side. that Ezra, by divine inspiration, published an edition of the sacred books, exhibiting in every page and line, an infallibly correct and perfect text… This tradition had obtained footing in the church so early as the days of Tertullian” (pg. [69]              “In the first half of the eighteenth century, Schultens and Michaelis could still hold the view that some of the points antedated the Masoretes, and even the great synagogue. Table 16 - Long Vowels in EBHP by Origin. as it is now printed with vowels, to be the only fountain, out of which we must draw the pure truth of the Scriptures of the Old Testament” (pg. . Bodie Hodge an author for Answers in Genesis, the world’s largest apologetic ministry, which obviously has perhaps the largest influence on Christian apologetics today, wrote: Sometimes you may see words in proper Hebrew with or without vowel points. also MS D). In the ten volumes of the Ante-Nicene Fathers, the most common typo is switching u with n, so words like “aud” or “bnt” appear on occasions. If the translators wrote the Aleph (א)—which is a silent consonant in Hebrew—as the Greek letter Alpha (Α), than the second letter in Greek is being interpreted as וּ to produce the υ, instead of וֹ which is the “O” of what Origen is essentially arguing about.

Redbridge School Calendar, Reef Shark Bite Force, Nashik To Thane Msrtc Bus Fare, New York Winter Fashion, Raising Organic Meat Chickens, Sabre Corporation Stock,



Pridaj komentár

Vaše e-mailová adresa nebude zveřejněna Vyžadované polia sú označené *