1. c. 980 - Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abdullah ibn Sina (or Ibn Sina for short) was born in Afshana, a village near Bukhara (present day Uzbekistan), capital of the Samanids, a Persian dynasty in Central Asia. In understanding the goal of human life in this manner Avicenna was again being true to the Aristotelian view of divine happiness as the identity of thinker, thinking, and thought (Metaphysics XII.7, 1072b18–26). He was born in August 980 A.D. 7 Terms. For although the knowledge to be acquired, in itself and on the transcendent plane of the eternal celestial intellects, is a closed system and hence static, on a human level and in history it is evolutionary. timabens1. philosopher and physician of the Islamic Ibn Sina subsequently settled at Rai, in the vicinity of modern Tehran, (present day capital of Iran), the home town of Rhazes; where Majd Addaula, a son of the last Buwayhid emir, was nominal ruler under the regency of his mother (Seyyedeh Khatun). He tells us that the Persian philosopher was born about 980 in the village of Afshana near the present-day Bukhara in Uzbekistan. and analysis in Gutas 2014b-VII, esp. Ibn Sina's father and brother were Ismailies. PLAY. At some point in his later years, Avicenna wrote for or dictated to his student, companion, and amanuensis, Abū-ʿUbayd al-Jūzjānī, his Autobiography, reaching till the time in his middle years when they first met; al-Jūzjānī continued the biography after that point and completed it some time after the master’s death in 1037 AD. Apart from the references in the text, the bibliography also lists several recent studies on Avicenna along with some reference works. 1. As a result, he succeeded in de-mystifying concepts like inspiration, enthusiasm, mystical vision, and prophetic revelation, explaining all as natural functions of the rational soul. pencil. science, religion, theology, and mysticism. Essence is what comprises the nature of things, and should be recognized as something separate from the physical and mental realization of things. Toward the end of his life Avicenna wrote two more summae in slightly divergent modes. Muslim scientists thought about the origin of minerals, rocks, mountains, earthquakes and water, etc. According to the scientific view of the universe in his day which he studied in the curriculum—Aristotelian sublunar world with Ptolemaic cosmology and Neoplatonic emanationism in the supralunar—all intelligibles (all universal concepts and the principles of all particulars, or as Avicenna says, “the forms of things as they are in themselves”) were the eternal object of thought by the First principle, and then, in descending hierarchical order, by the intellects of the celestial spheres emanating from the First and ending with the active intellect (al-ʿaql al-faʿʿāl), the intellect of the terrestrial realm. philosophy influenced mightily the medieval and Renaissance For Avicenna, the proper subject of natural philosophy, in itsbroadest or most general sense, is body insofar as it is subject tomotion. The second, Fair Judgment (GS 11), composed in 1029, was a detailed commentary on the “difficult passages” of the entire Aristotelian corpus, in which was included even the suspect Theology of Aristotle (actually Plotinus’ Enneads IV–VI). The creation of the philosophical summa—and not only this particular first one for ʿArūḍī but especially the major work, The Cure, and the alluring and allusive Pointers and Reminders—had momentous consequences. This was due as much to his own philosophical training, which followed this curriculum, as to the earliest commissions he received while still in Bukhara for works that would encompass all philosophy; but then these commissions inevitably reflect the broad philosophical culture of the period that viewed science and philosophy as an integral whole. Around 10 years old he had memorized the entire Qur'an. Up until that time, philosophical treatises on discrete subjects and abstruse commentaries, the two dominant forms of philosophical discourse, as just indicated, were matters for specialists that could not and did not claim endorsement or allegiance from society as a whole; the philosophical summa did. The Canon of Medicine (Arabic: القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb; Persian: قانون در طب) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian Muslim physician-philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025. Gutas 2014a, 184). Ibn Sina [Avicenna]: metaphysics | Islam into a rationally rigorous and self-consistent scientific system He never took care of his health due to research work in the last years of his life. So how did Ibn Sina influence the modern world? Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (c. 980—1037) Abu ‘Ali al-Husayn ibn Sina is better known in Europe by the Latinized name “Avicenna.” He is probably the most significant philosopher in the Islamic tradition and arguably the most influential philosopher of the pre-modern era. Avicenna served the various local rulers in these cities certainly in his dual capacity as physician and political counselor, functions he had assumed already back home, but also as scientist-in-residence. However, their respective acquisition of knowledge is different because of their different circumstances: the human intellect comes into being in an absolutely potential state and needs its association with the perishable body in order to actualize itself, whereas the celestial intellects are related to eternal bodies and are permanently actual. Hasse, D.N., 2013, “Avicenna’s Epistemological Optimism,” in Adamson 2013, pp. He developed a style of supple Arabic expository prose, complete with technical philosophical terminology, that remained standard thenceforth. Nuclear physicist and science historian Jim al-Khalili has argued that ibn Sina's greatest work wasn't The Canon but instead Kitab al-Shifa, or Book of Healing. Using the words of Aristotle, Avicenna paraphrases this passage as follows: “As for the foremost ‘understanding (noêsis, fahm) in itself, it is of what is best in itself;’ and as for ‘what understands itself, it is’ the substance ‘of the intellect as it acquires the intelligible, because it becomes intelligible’ right away just as if ‘it touches it,’ for example. Plato was not available in Arabic other than in brief excerpts, in Galen’s epitomes, in gnomologies, and in second-hand reports in Aristotle and Galen (Gutas 2012a), and accordingly Avicenna could dismiss him. pencil. 109–119. paraphilosophical constructs, determined developments in philosophy, When the work was translated into Latin, it became known as the Canon of Medicine and was the dominant text for the teaching of medicine in Europe. From his autobiography we learn that he was born in an Isma_ili family in Afshana, in the Persian region of Bukhara. Avicenna wrote in different genres, but his major innovation was the development of the summa philosophiae, a comprehensive work that included all parts of philosophy as classified in the late antique Alexandrian and early Islamic tradition (cited above). But history dealt its blows, ending Avicenna’s idyllic existence of secure employment, intellectual renown, and the admiration of his compatriots. book. Many of his woorks concentrated on philosophy and medicine. Avicenna, Muslim physician, the most famous and influential of the philosopher-scientists of the medieval Islamic world. Tradition Arabe,” in, –––, 2012b, “Avicenna: The Metaphysics of the Rational Soul,”. Chapter 3: Acts of worship as reminders of the afterlife and as exercises predisposing the rational soul to engage in intellection (cf. The wikipedia page for Avicenna which in persian is called Abu Sina provides very helpful information to answer this question. Ibn Sina obtained thorough education and was known for his astonishing mind and intelligence. His Al-Quanun fi al-Tibb, was a masterpiece of Arabic systemization, in which he sought to collate and organize all known medical knowledge. For human knowledge, therefore, the intellect functions as a processor of the information provided by the external and internal senses. ), better known in the West as Avicenna, has a leading contribution in his famous Encyclopaedia of Philosophy and Natural Sciences – “Kitab Al-Shifa” (the Book of Healing). Greek after the sixth century, reborn in Arabic in the 9th Some of his main contributions are: 1. The system was therefore both a research program and a worldview. for keeping copies of his works; as it must have happened rather frequently, when commissioned or asked to write about a subject that he had treated earlier, it was apparently just as easy for him to compose a treatise anew as it was to copy an earlier version of it. At about that time he was allowed to visit the library of the Samanid ruler, just mentioned above, where, he says, he “read those books, mastered their teachings, and realized how far each man had advanced in his science” (Gohlman 1974, 36; transl. However, once the soul has been freed of the body after death, and if, while still with the body, it has acquired the predisposition to perceive the intelligibles through philosophical training, then it can behold the intelligibles through their causes and become just like the celestial spheres, a state which Avicenna describes as happiness in philosophical terms and paradise in religious. It runs to twenty-two large volumes in the Cairo edition (1952–83), and its contents exhibit all the parts of philosophy in the Aristotelian tradition which they reproduce, revise, adjust, expand, and re-present, as follows: Avicenna did not treat all of these subjects in each one of his summae, but he varied their contents and emphasis depending on the specific purpose for which he composed them. Ibn sina was a Islamabad Doctor. intellects. It is a difficult work, and it must be understood always through constant reference to the more explicit expository statement of Avicenna’s theories in The Cure. Avicenna’s rationalist empiricism is the main reason why he strove in his philosophy on the one hand to perfect and fine-tune logical method and on the other to study, at an unprecedented level of sophistication and precision, the human (rational) soul and cognitive processes which provide knowledge through the application of rational empirical methods. A potrait of Ibn al Nafis. in Bukhara and died in 1037 in Hamedan. The lesser philosophical schools of antiquity—the Stoics, Epicureans, Sceptics, and Pythagoreans, who had ceased to exist long before late antiquity—he knew mostly as names with certain basic views or sayings affiliated with them. counterparts, preferring Averroes instead. Furthermore, the Islamic tradition before Avicenna was not any less unhomogeneous, as it was represented by the eclectic al-Kindī and his disciples, the Aristotelians of Baghdad, and the sui generis Rhazes (of whom Avicenna thought little even as a physician). It presented for the first time to the world a comprehensive, unified, and internally self-consistent account of reality, along with the methodological tools wherewith to validate it (logic)—it presented a scientific system as a worldview, difficult to resist or even refute, given its self-validating properties. The imperative to know, and to know rationally, which is the motivation behind Avicenna’s conception and then realization of his scientific system, is based on Aristotle’s concept of happiness as the activity of that which differentiates humans from all other organic life, of the mind (Nicomachean Ethics X.7, 1177b19–25): “the activity of the intellect is thought to be distinguished by hard work (spoudê, ijtihād), since it employs theory, and it does not desire to have any other end at all except itself; and it has its proper pleasure …. In the meanwhile Shams al-Dawla contracted colic again. [Please contact the author with suggestions. This is humanist ethics dictated by a scientific view of the world. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) accidentally burned the whole library of the king of Bukhara. communities in Europe used Hebrew translations of some of his works, 3. However, Ibn Sina mentioned he did not share their doctrine - with regards to the Universal Intellect and the Universal Soul. Thus began Avicenna’s lifelong itinerant career and the attendant quest for patronage and employment (Reisman 2013). Hasse 2013, 118). Ibn Sīnā (980–1037)—the Avicenna of Latin fame—is arguably the most important representative of falsafa, the Graeco-Arabic philosophical tradition beginning with Plato and Aristotle, extending through the Neoplatonic commentary tradition and continuing among philosophers and scientists in the medieval Arabic world.Avicenna’s fame in many ways is a result of his ability to … Out of his 450 various publications and treatises, almost 240 of them have survived, majority of which belongs to philosophy and medicine. 2014), along with two incomplete recensions of his commentary on the Theology of Aristotle (GS 11b; Vajda 1951). Sina is also regarded as the father of medieval medicine science. Beyond general physics (al-samāʿal-ṭabīʿī), the physical sciences are furtherdivided into various special sciences distinguished according toeither the kind of motion investigated or the kind of body treated.While Avicenna himself does not explicitly identify his decisionprocedure for dividing the special natural sciences, it is evidencedin the way that he divides up t… al-raʾīs), after Aristotle, whom Avicenna called McGinnis, J., with the assistance of D.C. Reisman, 2004. On the social side of religion, he added a fourth subdivision to practical philosophy (in addition to ethics, household management, and politics) which he called “the discipline of legislating” (al-ṣināʿa al-shāriʿa, Kaya 2012; Kaya 2014; Gutas 2014a, 470–471, 497). 980 CE-1037 CE. The purpose in this, for which he borrowed the topos of late antique Aristotelian commentarial tradition explaining why Aristotle had developed a cryptic style of writing, was to train the student by providing not whole arguments and fully articulated theories but only pointers and reminders to them which the student would complete himself. He also wrote about their cures and discussed many medicines. This knowledge, which represents and accounts for reality and the way things are, also corresponds, Avicenna maintains, with what is found in books, i.e. In the Muslim world, he is known simply as Ibn Sina. This entailed detailed study of the operations of the soul in its totality and in all its functions, whether rational, animal, or vegetative. In other words, if we seek to verify the statement “A is C,” we must look for a suitable B to construct a syllogism of the form, “A is B, B is C, therefore A is C.” The significance of the middle term is discussed in the Posterior Analytics (I.34), where Aristotle further specifies, “Acumen is a talent for hitting upon (eustochia) the middle term in an imperceptible time” (Barnes 1994 transl.). 0 0 1. and analysis Gutas 2014a, 35–40; Gutas 2000). Avicenna is quite explicit about the need for the human intellect to be prepared and to demand to hit upon a middle term, or actively to seek an intelligible, in order to receive it. in good Aristotelian fashion, realizing the genus and specific difference of something—or acknowledging the truth (taṣdīq) of a categorical statement by means of syllogisms. These were, first, his understanding of the structure of philosophical knowledge (all intellectual knowledge, that is) as a unified whole, which is reflected in the classification of the sciences he studied; second, his critical evaluation of all past science and philosophy, as represented in his assessment of the achievements and shortcomings of previous philosophers after he had read their books in the Samanid library, which led to the realization that philosophy must be updated; and third, his emphasis on having been an autodidact points to the human capability of acquiring the highest knowledge rationally by oneself, and leads to a comprehensive study of all functions of the rational soul and how it acquires knowledge (epistemology) as well as to an inquiry into its origins, destination, activities, and their consequences (eschatology). The human intellect can think an intelligible for some time, but then it disappears, it being impossible for the immaterial intellect to “store” it, or have memory of it, as opposed to the two internal senses, imagery and memory, which have a storage function for their particular oblects (forms and connotational attributes) because they have a material base in the brain. timabens1. Accordingly, while the classification of the different parts of philosophy continued to be presented as a virtual blueprint for a potential philosophical summa, the main form of philosophical discourse was the individual treatise on one or more of related themes and, predominantly, the commentary on the works of “divine” Plato and, by the sixth century, also “divine” Aristotle. Avicenna’s identification of hitting upon the middle term as the central element in logical analysis on the one hand established that the syllogistic structure of all knowledge is also as it is thought by the celestial intellects, and on the other enabled Avicenna to unify and integrate the different levels of its acquisition by the human intellect within a single explanatory model. Learn. Abū-ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn-ʿAbdallāh beginning with the 12th century, Avicenna’s According to this document, Avicenna was born in Afshana, a village in the outskirts of metropolitan Bukhara, some time in the 70s of the tenth century, perhaps as early as 964; it has not been possible to determine the year of his birth with greater Although Ibn Sina and other Muslim philosophers often did not know classical Greek, they were familiar with … The inspiration here is clearly the beginning of Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics (cf. Match. He wrote with the purpose of reaching all layers of (literate) society, but also with an eye to posterity. Avicenna complied, and thus was born the first philosophical summa treating in a systematic and consistent fashion within the covers of a single book all the branches of logic and theoretical philosophy as classified in the Aristotelian tradition. His treatise on philosophy, the Cure, or al Shifa, was greatly influential on European scholastics, such as Thomas Aquinas. not as members of the Islamic commonwealth, accepted most of his ideas Avicenna: Avicenna was born on August 23, 980, and died on June 22, 1037. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) was died in 1037 due to severe of the pain in his body. The Canon of Medicine (Arabic: القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb; Persian: قانون در طب) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian Muslim physician-philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025. In the field of metaphysics, Ibn Sina differentiates between what exists and its essence. Bukhara was no backwater provincial town, teeming as it was with scholars in residence and visiting intellectuals. The photograph is more than 50 years old, and was obtained during the exhumation of Avicenna's tomb in Hamadan for relocation. Complete happiness (eudaimonia, saʿāda) is In with philosophy, or more specifically, with the philosophical sciences as classified and taught in the Aristotelian tradition. But by the same token, and by its very nature, this worldview so clearly presented, documented, and validated, set itself up against other ideologies in the society with contending worldviews. Ibn Sina (981 – 1037 C.E. This difference applies to all things except God, said Ibn Sina. notebook. His achievement consisted in his harmonization of the disparate parts into a rational whole, and particularly in bringing the sublunar and supralunar worlds into an intelligible relation for which he argued logically. Instead, it must proceed to them from their perceived effects. Ibn Sina, or Avicenna, was born in Bukhara then a leading city in Persia.His youth was spent in the company of the most learned men of his time and he became accomplished in all the sciences and arts. What did Ibn Sina do? And Avicenna who wrote in different styles and genres to reach as many people as possible, as also noted above, clearly intended as much. Exaggerated and hagiographic as some of these reports might be, it is clear that Avicenna had constructively internalized (not to say “memorized”) the philosophical curriculum and he could reproduce it, properly assimilated and analytically reconstructed, at will. para-philosophy: Avicenna also discussed a facility for or habituation with intellection, which he called direct vision or experience (mushāhada) of the intelligibles. as it was intuitively acknowledged in the Islamic world where he is Barhebraeus in his Syriac Cream of Wisdom). The highest level of intellection is that of the prophet, who, on account of his supremely developed ability to hit upon middle terms, acquires the intelligibles “either at once or nearly so … in an order which includes the middle terms” (GS 6, 273–274; transl. Today's Google Doodle celebrates what would have been Muslim philosopher Ibn Sina's 1038th birthday. His fame grew, and when he was twenty-one he was asked by a neighbor named ʿArūḍī to write a “comprehensive work” on all philosophy, which he did (Philosophy for ʿArūḍī, GS 2), treating all subjects listed above except mathematics; another neighbor, Baraqī, asked for commentaries on the books of philosophy on all these subjects—essentially the works of Aristotle—and he obliged with a twenty-volume work he called The Available and the Valid (i.e., of Philosophy, GS 10) and a two-volume work on the practical sciences, Piety and Sin (GPP 1). though they were far less receptive than their Roman Catholic The implementation of the first task, the treatment of all philosophy as a unified whole, though historically seemingly unachievable, was accomplished by Avicenna almost without effort. Traditionally it has rarely been read except together with a commentary, notably those of Fakhr-ad-Dīn al-Rāzī and especially Naṣīr-ad-Dīn Ibn Sina [Avicenna]: natural philosophy, Copyright © 2016 by By his eighteenth year, he had internalized the philosophical curriculum and verified it to his own satisfaction as a coherent system with a logical structure that explains all reality. school equipment Ibn Sina. book. Carl Linnaeus, the outstanding naturalist XVIII century, called avicenia evergreen plant of the genus verbena. In the case of the prophet, he acquires all the intelligibles comprising knowledge, complete with middle terms as already mentioned, because the intellective capacity of his rational soul to hit upon the middle terms and acquire the intelligibles is extraordinarily high; this capacity is coupled with an equally highly developed internal sense of imagination that can translate this intellective knowledge into language and images (in the form of a revealed book) that the vast majority of humans can easily understand. He was born in August 980 A.D. 7 Terms. When did Ibn sina born? That Avicenna was able to produce such a work (and repeat it seven more times thenceforth) is of course a tribute to his genius (universally acknowledged both then and now), but that the request for it should have come from his society is telling evidence of its cultural attitude regarding science. Ibn e Sina passed away in June 1037, in the Hamadan area of Iran. 600–800) with the translation and paraphrase, in Arabic this time, of the canonical source texts (Gutas 2004a), these compositional practices reappeared. Ibn Sina hid in the house of a person called Abu Sa'd (or Abu Sa'id) b. Dakhdul (or Dakhduk) for 40 days. al-Ṭūsī.. Those whom we call Neoplatonists he knew as commentators of Aristotle along with the rest, and even Plotinus and Proclus were available to him in translated excerpts under the name of Aristotle, as the Theology of Aristotle and The Pure Good respectively. Avicenna is the Latinized version of the name “Ibn Sina” whose full form is Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn Sina. Even though the Autobiography has particular philosophical points to make (discussed in the next section), this is no mere boast. Ibn Sina’s natural philosophy. Life and Works 1.1 Life. He was inspired by Aristotelian philosophy and … Asked by Wiki User. Constantinople were quite indifferent to philosophical developments He died in 1037 in Hamadhan and was buried there. The human intellect can engage in a syllogistic process in the order which includes the middle terms and which is identical with that of the celestial intellects for the simple reason, as Avicenna repeatedly insists, that both human and celestial intellects are congeneric (mujānis), immaterial substances. When, at the end of all these operations just described, the intellect hits upon a middle term or just perceives an intelligible that it had not been thinking about before, it acquires the intelligible in question (hence the appellation of this stage of intellection, “acquired intellect,” al-ʿaql al-mustafād ), or, otherwise expressed, acquires it from the active intellect which thinks it eternally and atemporally since the active intellect is, in effect, the locus of all intelligibles, there being no other place for them to be always in actual existence. Its contents can be seen in his extensive treatment of it all at the end of the metaphysics part of The Cure, as follows. Abu Ali al-Hussain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina (Avicenna in Latin) was born in the village of Afshaneh, close to Bukhara in the present-day Uzbekistan in August 23, 980 AD , . Patronage and Learning in Medieval Islam,” in Adamson 2013, pp. (Gutas 2004a, 2010). As a teenager he studied Aristotle's Metaphysics which had difficulty understanding. Avicenna’s proof actually has nothing to do with design, he doesn’t need the idea that the universe is intelligently put together. He was Iranian doctor and poet. Ibn Sina’s metaphysics The same applies to other forms of communication from the supernal world. theology using philosophical discourse to express (or hide) Islamic content (the tradition of al-Ghazālī and his followers and imitators), “philosophical” mysticism (the tradition of Ibn al-ʿArabī, who was called the Greatest Master” [al-Shaykh al-Akbar] to rival Avicenna’s “The Preeminent Master” [al-Shaykh al-Raʾīs]), occultism, numerology, lettrism. A crater on the moon is named after him and several countries coined money, stamps and medallions in commemoration of Ibn Sina. Also, please provide SERIOUS answers. To these philosophers should be added the philosophically sophisticated theologians of the various Muʿtazilite branches (one of whose most prominent representatives, the judge ʿAbd-al-Jabbār, Avicenna may have met in Ray between 1013 and 1015). Avicenna - Avicenna - Legacy: It is difficult to fully assess Avicenna’s personal life. Avicenna was a Persian polymath born in the 10th century AD and was one of the most brilliant philosophers of the Islamic Golden Age. His reach was as global in its aspirations as his system was all-encompassing in its comprehensiveness; and history bore him out. 1350,” in Janssens and De Smet 2002: 81–97. In the polyphony of philosophical voices and systems that followed his death in 322 BC and throughout the Hellenistic period (336–31 BC), his suggestions went mostly unheeded by the Peripatetics and were only followed, at the end of that period, by Andronicus of Rhodes if only for the purposes of the order in which he put Aristotle’s school treatises (his extant corpus) in his first edition of them. ), 2002, Kaya, M.C., 2012, “Prophetic Legislation: Avicenna’s View of Practical Philosophy Revisited,” in, –––, 2014, “In the Shadow of “Prophetic Legislation”: The Venture of Practical Philosophy after Avicenna,”, Lizzini, O., 2009, “Vie active, vie contemplative et philosophie chez Avicenne,” in. the extent that they were writing for their respective communities and Terms in this set (34) lifetime. Aristotelian ethics provided the foundation of the edifice. 4th Crusade. At some point in his later years, Avicenna wrote for or dictated to his student, companion, and amanuensis, Abū-ʿUbayd al-Jūzjānī, his Autobiography, reaching till the time in his middle years when they first met; al-Jūzjānī continued the biography after that point and completed it some time after the master’s death in 1037 AD. Prince of Physicians. Gutas 2014a, 377; cf. In the former case he created a veritable metaphysics of the rational soul (Gutas 2012b), which he added to the traditional treatment of metaphysics (being as such, first philosophy, natural theology) as an additional subject, called “theological” (al-ʿilm al-ilāhī, al-ṣināʿa al-ilāhiyya). 2. Marmura 1990). The starting point of Avicenna’s logic is that all knowledge is either forming concepts (taṣawwur) by means of definitions—i.e. The highest category comprises of the prophets, who have pure rational souls and have knowledge of all things intelligible. Book 9, Chapter 7: Destination of the rational soul in the afterlife and its bliss and misery; real happiness is the perfection of the rational soul through knowledge. Avicenna lived his philosophy, and his desire to communicate it beyond what his personal circumstances required, as an intellectual in the public eye, is manifest in the various compositional styles and different registers of language that he used. For further reading, see the entries on –––, 2013, “The Life and Times of Avicenna. Top Answer. Engaging in science and philosophy during the first three Abbasid centuries (750–1050) in Islam was done mostly under the political patronage of the rulers and the ruling elite who were the sponsors and also among the consumers of the scientific production. Only, as already mentioned, because of their varied circumstances, the latter think of the intelligibles directly, permanently, and atemporally, while the human intellect has to advance from potentiality to actuality in time by technical means leading to the discovery of the middle term as it is assisted by all the other faculties of the soul and body. As a result, many a ruler evinced sheer interest in science itself out of a desire to appear knowledgeable and participated in scientific debates, usually conducted in political fora. He also attempted at a philosophical interpretation of religion and religious beliefs. –––, 2004a. Ibn-i Sina was born in 980 in Efşene, near Bukhara, in present-day Uzbekistan. At some point in his later years, Avicenna wrote for or dictated to his student, companion, and amanuensis, Abū-ʿUbayd al-Jūzjānī, his Autobiography, reaching till the time in his middle years when they first met; al-Jūzjānī continued the biography after that point and completed it some time after the master’s death in 1037 AD.