autism and schizophrenia dual diagnosis

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The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Yale University School of Medicine Human Subject Investigation Committee. doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e318212c196, 27. As an example, item B1 of the ADOS-2 relates to “unusual eye contact,” which is coded when the examiner observes poorly modulated eye contact used to initiate or regulate social interactions. Psychiatry 11:548. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00548. George’s affective instability continued, but his thought disorder and psychosis have been the most enduring symptoms, even in the absence of mood dysregulation. Higher scores on the PANSS represent greater severity of SZ traits. Limitations of this study include the small sample size and unequal sex and IQ among the different diagnosis groups. The term dual diagnosis describes a situation where a person has both a developmental disability and a mental health problem. Kanner L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Central to the RDoC framework, these negative symptoms that overlap in their clinical manifestation may well stem from similar biological mechanisms. Woodbury-Smith MR, Boyd K, Szatmari P. Autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia and diagnostic confusion. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. Similarly, psychotic symptoms, such as delusions and auditory hallucinations have been observed in less impaired people with ASD and in what was previously termed “Asperger syndrome” (20–22) Although these autism subtypes (CDD and Asperger syndrome) are now subsumed under “autism spectrum disorder” as of DSM-5 (1), these findings demonstrate that psychotic symptoms can be associated with the full spectrum of autism severity. Vorstman JA, Morcus ME, Duijff SN, et al. How autism became autism: The radical transformation of a central concept of child development in Britain. Overall, the findings suggest that positive symptoms from both the ADOS and PANSS better discriminate ASD and SZ groups than negative symptoms (see also Figure 2). The goal of the RDoC initiative is not to eliminate clinically useful diagnostic categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (1) but rather to introduce an interrelated classification system that links validated clinical presentations of psychopathology to underlying pathophysiology (6–8). Our program is frequently asked to rule out ASD, schizotypal personality disorder and/or schizophreniform disorder, and first-episode schizophrenia in youths and young adults. Evidence of positive symptoms from both ASD and SZ diagnostic assessments may warrant a dual diagnosis, which recent research converges in suggesting occurs with more frequency than once thought (27, 46). New York, NY: Basic Books. These respective positive symptoms in ASD and SZ overlap less than negative symptoms of each disorder do, suggesting an area of more phenotypic distinction and perhaps greater divergence in underlying neural substrates. The key aim of this study was to examine the utility of ASD and SZ diagnostic instruments in discriminating these respective disorders. In our analysis with the ADOS-2, there were 11 items where one or more of the codes could not be categorized as either positive or negative. Posted Dec 04, 2017 . As such, though both instruments are intended to index “syndrome-specific” symptoms, due to overlapping negative symptomatology, individuals with ASD often obtain elevated scores on the PANSS and those with SZ on the ADOS-2 despite not also carrying the second diagnosis. For both analyses, tests for homogeneity of variances were violated. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1982.04290070025006, 32. Negative Predictive Value (NPV) refers to the percentage of participants who did not meet the ADOS-2 criteria who also did not have an ASD diagnosis. doi: 10.1176/ajp.148.12.1705, 12. Table 1 Sex Distributions and Means and Standard Deviations of Age and Intelligence (IQ). doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2013.05.013, 25. These respective descriptions suggest an overlap between ASD and SZ related to the absence of typical social and communicative behaviors (9). Autism Res (2018) 11(8):1110–9. Prior to the release of the DSM-III (16) when ASD was first presented as a distinct clinical diagnosis, children now considered to have ASD were commonly diagnosed with “childhood onset schizophrenia” (17)—a childhood disorder characterized by abnormal perceptions of reality in addition to deficits in social functioning (18). We first examined the utility of the ADOS-2 in classifying participants with ASD, SZ, or TD by comparing ADOS-2 cut-off scores with clinical diagnostic consensus by expert licensed clinical psychologists based on information obtained from the ADOS-2, SCID-R, developmental history, collateral information, and the expert opinion of licensed clinical psychologists. Pathways to psychosis: a comparison of the pervasive developmental disorder subtype multiple complex developmental disorder and the “at risk mental state.” Schizophr Res. Pediatr Res (2011) 69(8):26–33. Participants were matched on mean age but there were statistically significant group differences in IQ (see Table 1), F(2,129) = 13.661, p < .001, such that the SZ group had significantly lower IQ than the ASD group (p = .006) and the TD group (p < .001). A professor is studying the differences between the social impairments found in autism and schizophrenia to help develop better treatments for ...Schizophrenia and autism seem to overlap at multiple levels. I. Dual diagnosis: Few specialists know how to identify and treat people who have both autism and schizophrenia. This fits with the neurodevelopmental insult and imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory transmission hypothesis for both autism and schizophrenia.20, Specific deletions associated with schizophrenia include 22q11.2, 1q21.1, and 15q13.3, which have been found to be associated with autism, attention-deficit disorder, and mental retardation.20 In individuals with velocardiofacial syndrome (chromosome 22q11), rates of ASD and psychosis are higher.21 Similarly, 16p11.2 microdeletions or microduplications have been reported in 1% of cases of autism and in 2% of the NIMH COS cohort.22-24 These copy number variants confer a risk for a range of neurodevelopmental phenotypes that include autism and schizophrenia.20 Although there have not been systemic comparisons of genome-wide association studies for autism and schizophrenia, some functional links have been reported at voltage-gated calcium channel genes, which are integral to presynaptic function and plasticity, across phenotypes.20, Both autism and schizophrenia have accelerated trajectories of brain development around the age of symptom onset: those with autism have an acceleration or brain overgrowth during the first 3 years of life, and those with COS have an acceleration of brain development (pruning) during adolescence.7, Cheung and colleagues25 attempted to quantify brain structural similarities and differences in ASD and schizophrenia using a quantified anatomical likelihood estimation approach to synthesize existing brain imaging datasets. These studies would benefit from the inclusion of genetics and characterization of family members to get a clearer sense of the genotype-phenotype associations and predictors of outcome. When he first presented to the clinic, he was disinhibited, emotionally unstable, and talked at length about his “other world.” His thoughts were loosely connected and he spoke about the friends in his other world who were talking to him. Such heterogeneity and overlap in these and other disorders motivated the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to propose the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative in an effort to develop new ways of conceptualizing and clustering symptoms within and across different disorders (6). JM consults with BlackThorn Therapeutics and has received research funding from Janssen Research and Development. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. Brain Res (2011) 1380:34–41. Arch Gen Psychiatry (1982) 39(7):789–94. In contrast, disorder-specific positive symptomology classified on the ADOS-2 and PANSS differentiated ASD and SZ groups more effectively. 2000;176:20-25. Because diagnosis groups had unequal IQ and sex distributions, we ran four additional ANCOVAs with diagnosis group as the independent variable, sex and IQ as covariates, and ADOS-Positive, ADOS-Negative, PANSS-Positive, and PANSS-Negative as the respective dependent variables in each ANCOVA. ASD, Autism Spectrum Disorder; SZ. Multiplex developmental disorder. The authors concluded that children with MCDD are at high risk for psychosis later in life. doi: 10.1007/s10803-008-0674-3, 41. Background: Even if childhood-onset of schizophrenia is described in the literature, and there are several case reports of concomitant autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), early diagnosis remains less the rule than the exception. 2008;320:539-543. 1971;118:385-395. Neuropsychological function and dysfunction in schizophrenia and psychotic affective disorders. CNS Drugs. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). ROC curves offer similar sensitivity and specificity information but differ in that, instead of using algorithm cut-off scores as in Table 2, ROC curves examine the extent to which continuous ADOS scores correctly classify participants into DSM-5 diagnostic categories. The patient’s age at the onset of symptoms and the clinical presentation distinguish autism from early-onset schizophrenia. Copy number variant and rare allele studies have found a relationship between autism and point and structural mutations in neurologins, neurexins, and related genes.7, There have also been reports that implicate the neurexin family in schizophrenia. Stahlberg O, Soderstrom H, Rastam M, Gillberg C. Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and other psychotic disorders in adults with childhood onset AD/HD and/or autism spectrum disorders. London, England: SAGE Publications Sage UK (2018). We ran two separate univariate ANOVAs with diagnosis (ASD, SZ or TD) as the independent variables in both models and ASD symptom type (positive or negative) as the respective dependent variables in either model. To explore whether a subset of symptoms was driving high ADOS-2 scores in SZ participants, we categorized ADOS-2 items into positive and negative symptom domains and tested the extent to which these item clusters could better discriminate true ASD from SZ. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. We hypothesized that the ADOS-2 would have good sensitivity in ASD but poor specificity in SZ. The patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study. George also had unusual behaviors and mood-regulation difficulties. Indeed, others have delineated the importance of carefully considering how IQ affects the results of ADOS-2 assessments (40). 23. Although the disorders are distinct, they have shared clinical features. 35. Similarly, negative symptoms of ASD largely represent deficits in social–emotional reciprocity and engagement, such as reduced sharing of emotion or lack of social initiation, deficits in nonverbal communication (e.g., reduced eye contact, limited use of gesture, limited range of facial expressions), and reduced spontaneous communication and conversation flow (34). Positive items from the ADOS-2 include presence of atypical behaviors such as echolalia, stereotyped/idiosyncratic use of words/phrases, compulsions or rituals, or unusual sensory interests (see Supplemental Material for a full description of how ADOS-2 items were categorized into positive and negative symptoms). • Provide an autism alert card or hospital passport so it is easier for healthcare professionals to understand your needs. Figure 1 (A) ROC curves predicting DSM-5 diagnostic status based on continuous ADOS-2 algorithm score. Kolvin I. |, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00548/full#supplementary-material, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). 6. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. Comorbid association of autism and schizophrenia. Schizophr Res (2008) 99(1-3):164–75. doi: 10.1177/0952695113484320. Kay SR, Fiszbein A, Opler LA. Siever LJ, Kalus OF, Keefe RS. 2007;37:1181-1191. ADHD is even more commonly associated with autism. Jänsch C, Hare DJ. Every person with autism has a unique personality and combination of characteristics which can make the diagnosis of this disorder really complicated. Resolving the matter of whether negative symptoms have similar or distinct biological mechanisms is critical for determining whether ASD and SZ populations are likely to benefit from similar treatments. The challenge is to distinguish symptoms of a mood disturbance from those of autism or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The phenomenology of childhood psychoses. By 1980, the “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders” (DSM) listed autism and schizophrenia as distinct diagnoses. Indeed, despite similar deficits in facial emotion recognition in ASD and SZ, there are markedly different patterns of EEG- and fMRI-measured neurological dysfunction associated with these deficits (46, 47). Finally, we completed the same steps for the PANSS, which separates symptoms into positive and negative domains by design—we conducted ANOVAs to examine diagnostic group differences in positive and negative SZ symptoms followed by analysis of ROC curves. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2019.05.016, 48. We first examined the sensitivity and specificity of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2nd edition (ADOS-2) (38) for discriminating ASD and SZ. J Psychiatry Neurosci: Jpn (2010) 35(5):360. doi: 10.1503/jpm.100130, 23. 2008;99:38-47. South Med J (2011) 104(4):264–8. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing (2000). Received: 04 April 2020; Accepted: 28 May 2020;Published: 11 June 2020. Adopting this framework from the SZ literature offers a new way of conceptualizing ASD symptomology that could better capture heterogeneity and allow for a dimensional approach to studying and treating shared and distinct symptomology across overlapping diagnostic categories. Developmental delays are described premorbidly in samples of children and adults with schizophrenia. In the case of childhood autism, we need to be aware that there can be a dual diagnosis, meaning an autistic kid can also be schizophrenic. J Neural Transm. “Negative symptoms”: Conceptual and methodological problems. The researchers concluded that in terms of brain volumetrics, ASD and schizophrenia have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms.25, A variety of psychosocial and educational interventions that support children with COS and children with ASD exist to address core deficits in socialization, communication, and behavior and the associated developmental and medical conditions. J Autism Dev Disord (2000) 30(3):205–23. 2006;45:1104-1113. JM also receives royalties from Guilford Press, Lambert, and Springer. All rights reserved. For example, negative symptoms in SZ include flat or blunted affect (e.g., reduced affective sharing, eye contact, facial expressions, and use of gesture), alogia (impoverished speech, perhaps reflecting difficulties with thinking and cognition), avolition/apathy (lack of energy, drive, and interest), anhedonia (lack of social and recreational interest), and inattentiveness (35). George is a 14-year-old boy who first presented to Dr Frazier at age 8 with a diagnosis of ASD. 20. Few positive ASD symptoms were noted in SZ patients, suggesting that ratings of these symptoms may be most helpful in making a differential diagnosis in this context. However, our IQ range was relatively typical of SZ samples, and lesser cognitive impairment in adults with ASD compared to SZ may more accurately represent these respective populations (50). Second, we examined Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves using ADOS scores. In the early years of the autism diagnosis, autism was thought by some to be a mental illness caused by poor parenting in the form of “refrigerator mothers” rather than a developmental disability caused by a difference in neurological type. Nat Neurosci (2006) 9(10):1218–20. The degree of symptom overlap on these measures between participant groups was analyzed using Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs), Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves, and Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVAs) to control for group differences in IQ and sex distributions. The ADOS reliably discriminated ASD and TD adults, but there was a high rate of “false positives” in SZ patients who did not meet the DSM-5 criteria for ASD. Buitelaar JK, van der Gaag RJ. Not surprisingly, these disorders frequently co-occur. Those who worked with him had difficulty in getting him off of these disturbing topics. Reichenberg A, Harvey PD, Bowie CR, Mojtabai R, Rabinowitz J, Heaton RK, et al. Specific deletions associated with schizophrenia include 22q11.2, 1q21.1, and 15q13.3, which have been found to be associated with autism, attention-deficit … American Psychiatric Association. Foss-Feig JH. J Clin Psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry (1991) 148(12):1705–7. Schizophr Bull (1985) 11(3):364–79. Expert Opin Pharmacother. Rutter M. Childhood schizophrenia reconsidered. The differential diagnosis between these disorders and the comorbid diagnoses of the two conditions is often a bit of a quagmire for clinicians. 16. Emil Kraepelin: A pioneer of scientific understanding of psychiatry and psychopharmacology. Unique features included lower gray matter volume in the amygdala, caudate, and frontal and medial gyrus for schizophrenia, and lower gray matter volume in the putamen for autism. While statistically controlling for sex and IQ did not change the overall pattern of results, it would have been more ideal if all groups were equal on these participant characteristics. AUCs can be roughly interpreted as excellent = .90–1; good = .80–.90; fair = .70–.80; poor = .60–.70; bad = .50–.60 (42). Arora M, Praharaj SK, Sarkhel S, Sinha VK. 18. de Bruin EI, de Nijs PF, Verheij F, et al. As the DSM-5 categorizes disorders primarily on symptom presentation, a key objective of RDoC is to work towards a classification system that clusters disorders based on biologically meaningful mechanisms—with the ultimate goal of better targeting optimal treatments (7). doi: 10.1038/nn1770, 26. Studies in the childhood psychoses. Finally, intercorrelations between negative and positive dimensions of the PANSS and ADOS were explored to examine possible content overlap among the scales. The developmental disorders include communication deficiency, motor development delays and social difficulties that have a similarity to those seen in autism-related disorders. TD participants were excluded if they had any history of a psychiatric diagnosis or if they had immediate family members with an ASD or SZ diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to specify overlapping symptom domains and to identify symptoms that can reliably differentiate adults with ASD (n = 53), SZ (n = 39), and typical development (TD; n = 40). ASD, SZ, and TD groups were then compared on positive and negative ASD symptom dimensions. 7. Systematic long-term follow-up studies that include individuals with ASD and with COS are indicated to further inform the field regarding similarities and differences between autism and schizophrenia. Pediatrics. Carroll LS, Owen MJ. There is a need for further research to understand whether the mechanisms contributing to negative symptoms in ASD and SZ are shared or distinct. COS-the onset of psychosis before age 13 years-is considered a rare and severe form of schizophrenia. A final limitation is that, paralleling clinical activity in ASD and SZ, this study was not supported by neuroimaging, electroencephalography, or genetic data. doi: 10.1023/A:1005605528309, 10. Researchers have long suspected that autism and schizophrenia are related. 27. It is important to remember that some individuals may have both COS and ASD, which has implications when designing appropriate biopsychosocial interventions. doi: 10.1017/S003329170999078X. A pattern emerged such that individuals with ASD and SZ have overlap in the overt presentation of negative symptoms, such as reduced social–emotional reciprocity, blunted affect, reduced nonverbal communication, apathy, reduced affect sharing, and reduced social overture and response, resulting in elevated scores in both groups on the negative scales of both the ADOS-2 and PANSS. Such measurement issues are not unique to the ADOS-2; in unpublished work from our group, we have found that both direct assessment and caregiver/self-report measures of ASD symptoms suffer from similar lack of specificity. Similarly, a study by Sprong and colleagues19 that compared youths with MCDD with youths at risk for psychosis found that although the groups clearly had differing early developmental and treatment histories, there were no differences in schizotypal traits, disorganization, and general prodromal symptoms. In contrast, the ROC curve of PANSS-Positive was significant, AUC = .64, p = .030 but would still be considered a poor test in discriminating diagnostic categories. This article highlights the biological and clinical links between the two disorders, reviewing shared genetics, brain changes, and similarities and differences in clinical presentations. Autism and schizophrenia co-occur significantly more often than would be expected by chance, according to a new analysis of nearly 2 million people 1. We then examined the ROC curves of the positive and negative scales we created to examine their functioning in discriminating diagnostic groups. Volkmar FR, Cohen DJ. This was the first time that negative and positive ASD symptoms have been split apart within a clinical measure of ASD symptoms and doing so seems to improve sensitivity and specificity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010887, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, 3. Structured clinical interview: The positive and negative syndrome scale (SCI-PANSS). Atypical antipsychotics are the mainstay of pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia at any age, and they have also been used to manage certain symptoms, particularly irritability, associated with ASD.26-28. George was referred to Dr Frazier because of an increase in the intensity and frequency of unusual and disturbing preoccupations that often had a morbid theme. In Figure 1A, we constrained the sample to just the ASD and TD samples or just the ASD and SZ samples. Neurologins are a family of postsynaptic proteins that bind transsynaptically to neurexins, which are presynaptic proteins that seem necessary for both excitatory and inhibitory synaptogenesis and synapse maturation. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. San Antonio, TX: PsychCorp (2011). What are the implications for psychiatric practice? .This article highlights the biological and clinical links between the two disorders, reviewing shared genetics, brain changes, and similarities and differences in clinical presentations. Abstract OBJECTIVE: In the last several decades, considerable evidence has suggested that autism and schizophrenia are unrelated. Sommers AA. doi: 10.1016/S0001-2998(78)80014-2, 43. Childhood-onset schizophrenia: the severity of premorbid course. Posey DJ, Kem DL, Swiezy NB, et al. Social withdrawal, communication impairment, and poor eye contact seen in ASD are similar to the negative symptoms seen in youths with schizophrenia.11 When higher-functioning individuals with autism are stressed, they become highly anxious and at times may appear thought-disordered and paranoid, particularly when they are asked to shift set (such as being asked to change a topic of conversation or to stop an activity that they are engaged in and begin a new activity).12 A subset of children (28%) in the ongoing NIMH study of COS have been reported to have comorbid COS and ASD.7, A number of researchers use different terms to describe this complex mix of psychiatric comorbidity and developmental psychopathology. Error bars represent standard error of the means. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are heterogenous neurodevelopmental disorders that overlap in symptom presentation. Nervous Child. Systematic studies of COS show high rates of the disorder being either preceded by or comorbid with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD).7, The first to describe the severity and frequency of prepsychotic developmental disorders in COS was Kolvin,2 who noted deficits in communication, motor development, and social relatedness. Data used in the preparation of this manuscript are publicly available to approved researchers as part of the NIMH Data Archive (nda.nih.gov) in collection C2312. 36. Some mildly affected individuals may exhibit only slight delays in language and greater challenges with social interactions. A professor is studying the differences between the social impairments found in autism and schizophrenia to help develop better treatments for people with both disorders. Essential Resources in the Treatment of Schizophrenia. Moreover, some have questioned whether negative symptoms in schizophrenia are primary (e.g., due to true apathy and avolition) or secondary (e.g., due to depression, medication side-effects, or social avoidance due to delusional fears about social situations) (48, 49). Schizophr Res (2013) 148(1-3):24–8. What new information does this article add? On the other hand, positive symptoms related to odd or excessive emotional gestures, echolalia, stereotyped speech patterns, unusual mannerisms, or circumscribed interests may be most indicative of an ASD diagnosis. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. Ebert A, Bar K-J. Adult psychiatrists and mental health professionals would benefit from further training in the diagnosis of ASD in adults, and child mental health professionals would benefit from training in the diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in youths. One-hundred and thirty-two individuals participated in this study. 40. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore P, Risi S, Gotham K, Bishop S. Autism diagnostic observation schedule–2nd edition (ADOS-2). 2004;111:891-902. Results: Approximately half of the study group fulfilled criteria for a personality disorder, all belonging to cluster A or C. Bastiaansen JA, Meffert H, Hein S, Huizinga P, Ketelaars C, Pijnenborg M, et al. This article highlights the biological and clinical links between autism and schizophrenia. As such, divisions among diagnostic categories in the DSM-5 can be complex and sometimes arbitrary, highlighting the need for a better understanding of shared risk factors and more nuanced ways of distinguishing symptom presentation across diagnostic categories in order to advance biologically informed research and practice. We are not advocating for the use of the subscales we created for diagnostic purposes. , – This paper sets out to clarify the position by reviewing the history and current status of the relationship between autism and schizophrenia. watman / Adobe Stock. Shortly thereafter, Sante De Sanctis extended the field of psychiatry to childhood, classifying ‘dementia praecocissima’ as a childhood condition that included psychotic and autistic symptoms by today’s definitions, such as “strangeness of character,” apathy, depressed mood, hallucinations and catatonia (13). Konstantareas MM, Hewitt T. Autistic disorder and schizophrenia: Diagnostic overlaps. Klin A, Mayes LC, Volkmar FR, Cohen DJ. Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), considered a rare and severe form of schizophrenia, frequently presents with premorbid developmental abnormalities. All analyses on diagnostic accuracy are based on the ADOS-2 algorithm cut-off scores and the subset of items that comprise this algorithm. Adult psychiatrists may benefit from additional training in the diagnosis of ASD in adults, whereas child psychiatrists may benefit from increased comfort with identifying primary psychotic symptoms in autistic youth. Although autism has long been recognized as a separate diagnostic entity from schizophrenia, both disorders share clinical features. Shen Y, Dies KA, Holm IA, et al; Autism Consortium Clinical Genetics/DNA Diagnostics Collaboration. Previous research has identified parallel deficits in social cognition in ASD and SZ (37) that may have similar origins in atypical neural activation of select brain areas (36). This study was approved by the Yale University School of Medicine Human Subject Investigation Committee. doi: 10.1097/SMJ.0b013e31820c015d, 22. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 9. To identify the reasons for low specificity in the SZ sample, we categorized ASD and SZ symptoms into ‘positive’ (presence of atypical behaviors) and ‘negative’ (absence of typical behaviors) symptoms. Nowadays, in the DSM 5, it is possible to define comorbidity between autism and schizophrenia when in a patient are present both the positive symptoms of schizophrenia (SCZ) as well as the characteristics of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD). doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2019.07.030, 47. SZ features are typically clustered into positive and negative symptom domains (31–33). 24. A thorough description is beyond the scope of this article, however. Dual Diagnosis. George had received the usual autism-specific services, and although he made gains, he continued to present with atypical behaviors. Funding for this study was provided by NIMH R01 MH107426 (JM, VS) and NIMH R01 MH119172 (JF-F). • We like to “keep it simple”, but this may not be possible • Change in diagnoses with aging. Basic principles of ROC analysis. Schizophrenia and autism are two completely different neuro-psychological disorders. Figure 2 *p < .05, ***p < .001 (two-tailed). North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems (1999). Across both measures of ASD and SZ symptoms, individuals from both diagnostic categories earned elevated negative symptom scores. Conceptualizing “borderline syndrome of childhood” and “childhood schizophrenia” as a developmental disorder. The specificity of the ADOS-2 was perfect in TD (100%). Psychol Med (2010) 40(4):569–79. 13. doi: 10.1002/aur.1977, 29. 17. Genetic overlap between autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. It’s particularly important for the doctor to get to know the individual and his or her family and environment before attempting such a diagnosis. While the specificity of the ADOS-2 was perfect (100%) in classifying TD participants (true negatives), there was a high percentage of SZ false positives, such that 43.59% of participants with SZ met ADOS-2 criteria for autism or autism-spectrum despite not meeting clinical DSM-5 criteria for ASD. Although George’s psychotic symptoms are well controlled by the medication, symptoms of ASD persist, including poor eye contact, ongoing failure to develop appropriate peer relationships, inability to sustain a conversation with others, encompassing preoccupation with restricted patterns of interest, stereotypies, and repetitive motor mannerisms. 4. J Autism Dev Disord (2014) 44(1):111–9. 20. 1995;34:1096-1106. 17. van der Gaag R, Caplan R, van Engeland H, et al. Kuo SS, Eack SM. Recurrent 16p11.2 microdeletions in autism. Insel TR. SZ symptoms were quantified with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) (41) after administering the SCI-PANSS interview (35). Grinker RR. Watkins JM, Asarnow RF, Tanguay PE. (2008). Madaan V, Dvir Y, Wilson DR. Child and adolescent schizophrenia: pharmacological approaches. We next examined ROC curves to see if ADOS-2 positive symptoms better discriminate ASD and SZ than ADOS-2 negative symptoms. In this example, the first individual displays the absence of a typical behavior (negative symptom), whereas the second displays the presence of an atypical behavior (positive symptom). Morgese G, Lombardo GP. Neural bases for impaired social cognition in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.143959, 33. Also, the disorders are treated differently.2,3 Schizophrenia is thought to develop at a chance rate in individuals with autism. Second, in order to resolve this confusion, clinicians ought to focus on the presence or absence of positive symptom domains of both ASD and SZ. We further expected that negative symptoms, quantified on both the ADOS-2 and the Structured Clinical Interview -Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (SCI-PANSS) (35) would be relatively similar between ASD and SZ groups, whereas positive symptoms from each assessment would be more sensitive and disorder-specific. 2006;20:841-866. By Metz’s (42) standards, negative items poorly discriminated ASD and SZ (Figure 1B), AUC = .64, p = .03. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1. 21. The boundaries of schizophrenia. USA: American Psychiatric Publishing (1980). 1. Conversely, we also see adolescents or young adults with schizophrenia who have a developmental history consistent with ASD (typically higher functioning) and who continue to have comorbid ASD. Frazier JA, McClellan J, Findling RL, et al. Evidence for three subtypes of repetitive behavior in autism that differ in familiality and association with other symptoms. We thank the clinicians who assisted in clinical assessment of the participants in the study, including Julie Wolf, Brianna Lewis, Kimberly Ellison, and Ela Jarzabek. doi: 10.1177/0957154X19832776. 1991;148:1705-1707. 2010;125:e727-e735. Buckley PF, Miller BJ, Lehrer DS, Castle DJ. We predicted that positive symptoms from both the ADOS and PANSS would better discriminate ASD and SZ groups than negative symptoms. JM oversaw all aspects of the study from study conceptualization, data collection, data analysis, and manuscript writing. + and − symbols refer to positive and negative symptoms, respectively. If a child is socially withdrawn and does not make eye contact when communicating with others, is the diagnosis schizophrenia or autism (Dvir & Frazier, 2011)? Their findings suggest early developmental abnormalities of the temporal and frontal lobes as evidenced by prepsychotic language difficulties; the early transient motor stereotypies indicate developmental abnormalities of the basal ganglia. Bleuler E. Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias. Positive symptoms in ASD encompass symptomology related to speech abnormalities such as echolalia or unusual intonation, atypical social behaviors such as exaggerated gesture and facial expressions, inappropriate social overtures, and symptoms related to stereotyped and repetitive behaviors or insistence on sameness such as unusual sensory sensitivities, repetitive hand or body movements, rigid insistence on routinized behavior, or circumscribed interests (34). In SZ, positive symptoms largely encompass hallucinations (e.g., hearing voices that no one else hears), delusions (e.g., feelings of grandiosity, or feelings of being controlled by outside forces), bizarre behavior (e.g., talking to oneself, unusual dress and physical appearance), and positive formal thought disorder (e.g., disorganized thinking or incoherent speech) (31, 35). Those with SZ demonstrated higher positive symptoms related to psychosis (e.g., delusions and hallucinations), whereas those with ASD demonstrated higher positive symptoms associated with ASD, including inappropriate overtures, abnormalities in language and speech, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors. The findings also point to the need for supplemental diagnostic measures that could more effectively parse symptom heterogeneity in ASD and better distinguish other disorders like SZ. This decision was made to ensure ability to accurately self-report during diagnostic assessments. J Autism Dev Disord (2001) 31(1):19–28. – Considerable confusion surrounds the overlapping of autism and schizophrenia. Asarnow RF, Brown W, Strandburg R. Children with a schizophrenic disorder: neurobehavioral studies. 1995;16(3 suppl):S7-S11. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e31818b1c63, 11. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01944.x, 5. For negative SZ symptoms, the SZ group scored higher than the TD group (p < .001), and the ASD group also scored higher than the TD group (p < .001). Additional work exploring the biological overlap between ASD and SZ, as well distinguishing positive symptoms of each disorder is clearly warranted. 39. Among the 22 cases who manifested psychotic symptoms (84.6%), 16 had a concurrent diagnosis of schizophrenia (72.73%) and 6 of mood disorders (27.27%). ASD and SZ share a long history of diagnostic confusion (9, 10) cf (11). Autism … King BH, Lord C. Is schizophrenia on the autism spectrum? doi: 10.1038/sj.mp.4001563, 6. We see children with ASD who have emerging psychotic symptoms. For the present study, we recruited community samples of adults with ASD, SZ, and typical development (TD) and administered gold-standard diagnostic interviews for both ASD and SZ. doi: 10.1038/sj.mp.4001857, 4. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the ASD and SZ groups for negative ASD symptoms (p = .087). 11. Schizophr Bull (1987) 13(2):261–76. 2004;161:2115-2117. Lord C, Risi S, Lambrecht L, Cook EH, Leventhal BL, DiLavore PC, et al. We next ran two univariate ANOVAs with diagnosis (ASD, SZ or TD) as the independent variable in both models and SZ symptom type (positive or negative) as the respective dependent variable. In contrast, ADOS-Positive and PANSS-Positive had a low, nonsignificant correlation, r = 0.16, p = .077, suggesting the positive symptom domains from either scale are tapping relatively distinct constructs. Autism and Schizophrenia, though separate diagnostic entities, share some common clinical features. Yet some have not previously received a diagnosis of ASD. Biol Psychiatry (2019) 86(7):e21–e3. Finally, care must be provided in an integrative manner-using a biopsychosocial model-for these multicomplex patients and their families. 18. The ROC curve for the ASD + SZ samples was also statistically significant, indicating that the ADOS-2 is able to correctly classify ASD and SZ samples; however, by Metz’s (42) standard, the AUC suggests the ADOS-2 algorithm would only be considered a “fair” test for discriminating these two populations, AUC = .73, p < .001. Dual diagnosis or co-occurring disorders is a term for someone who experiences a mental illness because of binge drinking, or the person abusing heroin during periods of mania. Commonalities in social and non-social cognitive impairments in adults with autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Participants were excluded if they met the DSM-5 criteria for both ASD and SZ diagnosis (n = 2) as this would preclude inclusion in either group for sensitivity/specificity analyses. 2008;17:628-638. doi: 10.1007/s10803-010-1157-x, 44. ‘Dementia praecocissima’: the Sante De Sanctis model of mental disorder in child psychiatry in the 20th century. USA: American Psychiatric Publishing (1968). 2010;5:e12233. Impact Factor 2.849 | CiteScore 3.2More on impact ›, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway, Centro Hospitalar Psiquiátrico de Lisboa, Portugal, University Medical Center Göttingen, Germany. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. WB Saunders. Emerging study results suggest that there are both clinical and biological links between autism and schizophrenia. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were only conducted for the ADOS because there are no diagnostic cut-off scores for the PANSS. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. This prepsychotic developmental disorder includes deficits in communication, social relatedness, and motor development, similar to those seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The negative symptom scale assesses blunted affect, emotional withdrawal, poor rapport, passive/apathetic social withdrawal, difficulty in abstract thinking, lack of spontaneity and conversation flow, and stereotyped thinking. 2008;69(suppl 4):15-20. Autism-an evolving concept. AN helped with statistical analysis and reviewed drafts of the paper. J Autism Dev Disord. Psychiatry Res (2005) 133(1):45–55. Psychiatr Clinics North Am (1993) 16(2):217–44. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. For example, those with ASD scored higher on restricted and repetitive behaviors and stereotyped language, whereas those with SZ scored higher on psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations. ASD symptoms were measured using the ADOS-2 (38). Shared shyness: Social difficulties in children with autism and schizophrenia dual diagnosis. Mol Psychiatry (2006) 11(9):815–36. • To ensure that clinical staff are … 15. Opler L, Kay S, Lindenmayer J, Fiszbein A. The ADOS-2 was administered by trained, research-reliable clinicians and consists of semistructured activities and conversations meant to sample a participant’s real-world social behavior and core autistic characteristics related to language and communication, reciprocal social interaction, imagination and creativity, stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests, and other atypical behaviors. © 2020 MJH Life Sciences and Psychiatric Times. Initially, these friends were humming to him or saying hello. His comorbid diagnosis was changed to schizoaffective disorder and, more recently, to schizophrenia. Keywords: autism, schizophrenia, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, positive symptoms, negative symptoms, symptom overlap, Citation: Trevisan DA, Foss-Feig JH, Naples AJ, Srihari V, Anticevic A and McPartland JC (2020) Autism Spectrum Disorder and Schizophrenia Are Better Differentiated by Positive Symptoms Than Negative Symptoms. 2005;15:465-476. The term ‘autism’ was first introduced by Bleuler (14), not as an independent disorder, but as a symptom of schizophrenia, although Bleuler’s definition of autism, the symptom, shares little resemblance to today’s conceptualization of autism, the syndrome (15). 12. doi: 10.1016/S0193-953X(18)30171-0, 28. A recurring issue is the overlap and boundaries between Intellectual Developmental Disorder (IDD), ASD and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD). Another limitation is that the ADOS-2 Positive and Negative items were derived post hoc and without a separate validation study, and many ADOS-2 items describing core ASD features could not be classified as either positive or negative so are omitted from our scales. Table 3 Intercorrelations Among ADOS and PANSS Symptom Domains. A controlled study of formal thought disorder in children with autism and multiple complex developmental disorders. Rare structural variants disrupt multiple genes in neurodevelopmental pathways in schizophrenia. Asperger disorder in adults. Next, we examined several Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves using ADOS scores. Unstrange minds: Remapping the world of autism. 2004;55:989-994. 2. The TD group also had higher IQ than the ASD group (p = .018). Kolvin I, Ounsted C, Humphrey M, McNay A. 2009;48:10-18. Diagnosis had a statistically significant effect on both positive symptoms, F(2,87.49) = 57.69; p < .001 and negative symptoms, F(2,110.96) = 11.83; p < .001.

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